1905 DIRECTORY FOR JEFFERSON COUNTY NEW YORKGRANGES
NOTE: The national Grange, officially called The Patrons of Husbandry, was founded in 1867. By 1875 there were 850,000 members in more than 21,000 granges throughout the United States. The grange movement lost many members in the 1880s, but began to grow again in the 1890s, and built a large membership based on its social, legislative and educational programs. A fraternal order with its own secret ritual, it was based on equality of men and women. Women could hold any office, though the four posts of Flora, Ceres, and Pomona, representing godesses of flowers, grains and fruits, as well as Lady Assistant Steward, were reserved for women. In 1905 Jefferson County had 34 Granges. These were organized under the county, or Pomona Grange, which in turn, was subject to the State Grange.
The following information, as well as the membership lists, is from Directory and Program of Jefferson County Granges, 1905 published under auspices of Jefferson County Pomona Grange, 151 pages indexed. This booklet is part of the collection of Northern New York Agricultural Musem at Stone Mills, NY,and is used with the gracious permission of Marguerite Raineri, Director.
To show the scope of Grange programs, this is the list of Jefferson County Grange topics for 1905:
JANUARY The Value of the Farmers' Institute
Telephones for Farmers
The Farm Owner and his Tenant
The Money System in Highway Improvement
Spraying and Its Value in Fruit and Vegetable Culture
The Farmers' Garden
Sheep vs. Cattle on the Dairy Farm
The Farm House Lawn
The County's Centennial
Future of Ginseng Farming
Shall We Hold a Picnic?
Our District Schools
My Experience in Keeping Bees
How Can We Improve Our Degree Work?
The Farmers' Duty to the Local Fairs
Why I Chose Farming
Education for the Farm
Our Country's Place in the World's Great Farm
How to Make Our Hens Lay When Those of Our Neighbors Don't
Does Winter Dairying Pay in Jefferson County?
Relation of the Subordinate Grange to the Pomona
Jefferson County and Its Products
What Does the Grange Stand For?
Value of Uniform Text Books Furnished by the State