from the
by J. H. French.
Published by R. Pearsall Smith,
Syracuse, N. Y. 1860.
Transcribing this for the Jefferson County website has been a labor of love, by two very generous volunteers, Barbara (Seeber) Britt, and her daughter, Leanne Allen O'Bryon. Murphy's law outdid itself in working overtime right up to the uploading to the website. Without the dedicated efforts of Barbara Britt and Leanne O'Bryon, you would not be using this article now. They carefully copied the text, including any vagaries of spelling and grammar. Questions should be directed to Nan Dixon, who takes full responsibility for anything else that can go wrong with it!

Footnotes are at the end of each town.


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ADAMS1--was formed from Mexico, April 1, 1802, and named in honor of John Adams, Ex-President. Rodman was taken off in 1804. It is an interior town, lying S.W. of the center of the co. Its surface is rolling, and generally inclined toward the lake, and, with the exception of its S.E. border, is underlaid by Trenton limestone. Several remarkable upheavals of this formation occur along its N. and W. borders, and a bold terrace extends into Watertown and Rutland. It is well watered by the N. Sandy and Stony Creeks. The soil is a clayey loam, with occasional sand and gravel, especially along the ancient lake ridge, which may be traced through this town. It is very productive, and equally adapted to dairying and the cultivation of grains. Manufactures are carried on to some extent. Adams, (p.v.,) situated on North Sandy Creek and the W. & R. R.R., contains 4 churches, a bank, a seminary, printing office, and several small manufactories. Pop. 1,268.2 Adams Center (p.v.,) and Smithville (p.v.,) have each about 250 inhabitants. Appling3 and North Adams (p.o.) are hamlets. The town was mostly settled under Isaac W. Bostwick, agent of Nicholas Low, the proprietor.4 The first sermon was preached in 1802, by Rev. Mr. Woodward, a missionary.5 A private academy--now called the Philharmonic Institute--has been taught at Adams Village for many years. The remains of several ancient fortifications are found in town.

1 Aleppo, or No. 7 of the Eleven Towns.
2 This village was first settled by David Smith, about 1800, and for many years it was known as "Smiths Mills." Incorp. Nov. 11, 1851.
3 Named for Maj. Daniel Appling, the hero of the battle of Sandy Creek.
4 The first settlers came on for permanent residence in 1800; among them were Nicholas and Alexander Salisbury, Solomon Smith, Daniel Comstock, Daniel Smith, Abram Ripley, Jonathan Cable, Stephen Shippey, and Enon D'Estaing. The first inn was kept by Abel Hart, and the first store by Jesse Hale. Daniel Smith erected the first grist and saw mills in 1801-02, the former superseding the stump mortars of the first season. The first birth was that of Edmund Salisbury; the first marriage that of Daniel Ellis to Mrs. A. Salisbury, widow of Alexander Salisbury in 1802; and the first death, that of Alexander Salisbury, drowned in 1801. Schools were first taught in 1803.
5 Rev. Chas. G. Finney, Pres. of Oberlin College, was a law student in this town. The census reports 9 churches; 3 Bap., 2 Seventh Day Bap., 2 Cong., M. E. and Prot. E.

ALEXANDRIA - was formed from Brownville and Le Ray, April 3, 1821, and named from Alexander Le Ray, a son of the proprietor. Theresa was taken off in 1841. It lies on the St. Lawrence, in the N. extremity of the co., and embraces the E. part of Wells Island and a considerable portion of the Thousand Islands. The surface underlaid by gneiss is rough and rocky, but that portion underlaid by sandstone is level, with a thin, clayey and sandy soil. A vein of lead has been discovered near Redwood, and examined to a depth of 40 feet. Alexandria Bay1 (Alexandria p.o.) contains 24 houses, Plessis2 (p.v.) 32 inhabitants and Redwood3 (p.v.) 429 inhabitants. Settlement commenced in 1811, under Le Ray. An engagement took place within the limits of this town during the war of 1812.4 An elegant Ref. Prot. D. church was erected at Alexandria Bay in 1848-51.5

1 This place was surveyed and laid out as a village for Le Ray in 1818. A custom house was established here in 1828. Sunken Rock Lighthouse was built in 1847. It is an important wooding station for steamers, and within a few years has become a favorite resort for fishing and excursion parties among the Thousand Islands.
2 Named from a town in France. Formerly called "Flat Rock," from the naked sandstone in the vicinity. A grist mill was built here in 1817 for Le Ray. Wm. Merrill, the first innkeeper, was murdered in 1826.
3 A glass factory was established at this place in 1833, by John S. Foster. It is devoted to the manufacture of cylinder glass, and is now carried on by a joint stock company known as the Redwood Manufac. Co. A stream a few rods in length, flowing from Mud to Butterfield Lake, has here a fall of 94 feet, and furnishes water power to a grist and saw mill.
4 The "Neptune" and the "Fox", two small American armed vessels, captured a brigade of bateaux belonging to the enemy, July 20 1813, and took their prizes into Cranberry Creek in this town. They were pursued, and a sharp skirmish ensued, resulting in the retreat of the British with considerable loss.
5 This church was built through the agency of Rev. G. W. Bethune, of Brooklyn, and is called "The Church of the Thousand Isles." A parsonage was built in 1852. The sites for both edifices were given by Francis Depau. The census reports 6 churches; 2 Prot. E., Bap., M. E., Presb., and R. C.

ANTWERP - was formed from Le Ray, April 5, 1810, and named from the Antwerp Company.1 It is the extreme E. town in the co. The N. and E. portions are broken by low rocky ridges parallel to the river. The S.W. part is more level. The soil in the valleys is a clayey loam, and is very fertile.2 The ridges are made up of masses of gneiss,3 white crystalline limestone,4 and sandstone.5 Between the gneiss and sandstone in this town are several of the richest iron mines in the State. The Sterling Mine6 lies about 3 mi. N. of Antwerp Village; another, of less extent, 1 mi. N.; a third, known as the Keene Mine7, on the borders of St. Lawrence co.; and a fourth, known as the Parish Mine8, immediately adjacent. In the same range are found the mines of Rossie and Gouverneur, which have furnished most of the ore used at the furnaces in this region. Bog iron ore is found near Ox Bow.9 One or two sulphur springs are found in town. Antwerp, (p.v.,) on the P. and W. R.R., was incorp. July 1853. It contains the Antwerp Liberal Institute10 and 3 churches. Pop. 621. Ox Bow (p.v.)11 on the Oswegatchie River. Pop. 240. Sterlingburgh12, 1 mi. above Antwerp, and Spragues Corners, on the line of St. Lawrence co., are hamlets. The first improvements were made in 1803, at the Ox Bow, under the direction of Louis R. Morris, the original proprietor.13 In 1808, Morris sold 29,033 acres to George and Davis Parish, under whose agents the greater part of the settlements were made. A party of militia was stationed here in 1808, to enforce the embargo, and a blockhouse was built at the village in 1812. The first church was built, in 1816, by Parish.14

1 This land company, formed in Holland, bought Great Tract No. IV., within which the town is situated. For particulars see Hough's Hist. Jeff. Co., p. 58-61.
2 According to the last census, this town produces more butter than any other town in the co.; and, with one exception, it has the greatest number of cows of any town in the State.
3 From 1805 to 1828 about 100 pairs of millstones were manufactured from this rock in this town.
4 This limestone is especially valuable for lime, and as a flux for iron ore.
5 This sandstone furnishes an excellent building material, and is used for the lining of furnaces.
6 Discovered by Hopestill Foster; owned and worked by Jas. Sterling.
7 On the farm of Hiram B. Keene, and owned by a company.
8 Owned by Geo. Parish, of Ogdensburgh.
9 This ore is of the red specular variety. The region in which it is found is one of the richest in the country for specimens of rare minerals.
10 This institution is not yet fully organized.
11 This name is derived from a remarkable bend in the Oswegatchie River, upon which the village is situated. The village was settled by Scotch immigrants.
12 Sterlingburgh, 1 mi. above Antwerp Village, is the seat of an iron furnace built by Jas. Sterling in 1846. A forge was built here for David Parish in 1817.
13 The first settler was Wm. Lee. Mills were built at Antwerp Village in 1806-07 for Morris, by John Jennison. The first school was taught in Foster Settlement by Benj. Cook.
14 This church was the second in the co., and for many years was used by all the denominations in town. It is now in the possession of the R. C. There are in town 8 churches; 2 Bap., M.E., Wes. Meth., Presb., Asso. Ref. Presb., R. C., Union.

BROWNVILLE - was formed from Leyden, April 1, 1802, and was named from Gen. Jacob Brown, its founder. Le Ray was taken off in 1806; Lyme, in 1818; Pamelia, in 1819; and Orleans, and a part of Alexandria, in 1821. It is situated on the N. side of Black River and Black River Bay. Its surface is level or gently undulating. The soil is a sandy and clayey loam. Sulphate of barytes is found on Pillar Point, and the vein has been worked to some extent for lithic paint. Upon the W. bank of Perch River, a few rods below Limerick, is a cave extending 150 yards into the bank and 30 feet below the surface. Manufactures receive considerable attention. Brownville, (p.v.,) on Black River, 4 mi. below Watertown, was incorp. April 5, 1828. It has a valuable water power, and contains 3 churches, a cotton factory, and several founderies and machine shops. Pop. 621. Dexter is situated at the head of navigation on the Black River.1 It is the seat of an extensive woolen factory built in 1836.2 Pop. 429. Limerick, (p.o.) and Moffatville, (Perch River p.o.) contain a dozen houses each. Pillar Point (p.o.) is situated across the bay from Sackets Harbor. Pop. 50. Gen. Jacob Brown began the settlement of the town in 1799, as proprietor and agent.3 During the war Brownville village became the seat of a hospital; and on different occasions large bodies of troops were posted in the vicinity. For several years it was the residence and headquarters of Maj. Gen. Brown, commander in chief of the N. department, and afterward Col. Edward Kirby, his son-in-law.4 There are 10 churches in town.5 1 Named from S. Newton Dexter, of Whitesboro', one of the proprietors. It was formerly known as "Fish Island." During the war the mills at this place furnished lumber for the public works at Sackets Harbor. The steamer "Brownville," built in 1827, and designed to run between this place and the lake ports, was burned upon her first trip. The Black River Nav. Co., incorp. in 1810, built locks here, which were little used. Piers for the improvement of navigation were built at the mouth of the river by the Gen. Government, but they have resulted in injury.
2 This factory is of stone, and cost $140,000. It is fitted for 10 sets of machinery, and employs 75 hands.
3 In 1800, Gen. Brown built a sawmill, and in 1801 a small grist mill, at the mouth of Philomel Creek. A bridge was built in 1802, and a dam across the river in 1806. In 1828, Henry Evans was hung near Watertown for murder committed in this town,--the only execution by civil authority that ever took place in the co.
4 Col. Kirby held the office of paymaster in the army from 1824 till his death, April 18, 1846.
5 2 M. E., 2 Prot. E., 2 Univ., 2 Presb., 1 Bap., 1 Union.

CAPE VINCENT - was formed from Lyme April 10, 1849, and named for Vincent Le Ray, son of the proprietor. It is the NW corner town of the co., and embraces Carlton, Grenadier, and Fox Islands in the St. Lawrence. The surface is level, or slightly undulating, and the soil is a clayey loam. Kent Creek is the principal stream. There are 2 or 3 sulphur springs in town. Considerable attention is paid to shipbuilding. Cape Vincent,1 (p.v.,) the terminus of the W. and R. R.R., near the head of the St. Lawrence River, is a thriving commercial village. Pop. 1026. St. Lawrence and Millens Bay are p. offices and hamlets. The first settlement in the town and co. was made upon Carlton Island2 about the time of the Revolution. A regular fortification, known as "Fort Carlton,"3 was erected upon the island and a tract of 30 acres was cleared and cultivated, and long known as the "Kings Garden." The first settlement upon the mainland was commenced in 1801 at Port Putnam, 2 mi. below Cape Vincent, by Capt. Abijah Putnam.4 Count Real, Chief of Police under Napoleon, and other French families of note, resided in this town for some time. A custom house was established in 1819. Upon the shores of Grenadier Island, 5 and of the mainland opposite, are valuable seine fisheries. A town ag. soc. was formed in 1850.6 There are 3 churches in town.7

1 Called "Gravelly Point" by many of the old inhabitants. It was first settled in 1809, laid out as a village in 1817, and incorp. in 1853. A lighthouse was built at Tibbits Point, 2 mi. distant, in 1826. The R. R. company have built a wharf 3000 feet long, 2 immense freight houses, a grain elevator, &c. The Ontario Line of Steamers touch at this point, and ferry boats run regularly to Kingston. A few years since, a canal was dug across Wolf or Grand Island, to afford a more direct route for this ferry. This place received several visits from the enemy during the war.
2 This island contains 1274 acres. A military class right of 500 acres was located here in 1786. For several years after 1822 it was a thriving lumber station, where rafts were made up for the Quebec market.
3 This fort commanded the s. channel of the river and was an important post during the Revolution. It was mostly excavated in the rock, and the materials taken out were used in the construction of the rampart and escarpment.
4 Mr. Putnam established a ferry from this place to Wolfe Island. In 1803, a State road was opened to this place, and in 1804 a village plot was laid out, but soon after abandoned.
5 This island was the rendezvous of Gen. Wilkinson's army on their way down the river in 1813. At the eastern extremity is a capacious bay, known as "Basin Harbor," which affords a shelter for boats. The whole island is now a single dairy farm.
6 This society is open to the citizens of Lyme, Clayton, and Wolfe Island.
7 Presb., Prot. E., and R. C.

CHAMPION1 - was formed from Mexico, March 14, 1800. A part of Harrisburgh was taken off in 1803. It is the central town on the S.E. border of the co. The surface is broken and hilly. The most elevated portions are the slate hills in the s. angle, (known as the 'peak,') which are about 1700 feet above tide. From their summits the land descends in a series of broken and irregular terraces to the river. The n. part is more level. The soil is generally a clay loam, but near the river in some places it is sandy. Champion (p. v.) contains 20 houses, Great Bend (p. v.) and West Carthage2 about 30 each. Champion South Roads is a p.o. The first settlement was begun in 1798, by Noadiah Hubbard, as agent for Storrs. The first settlers came by water down the river as far as the Long Falls, and the town was settled with great rapidity.3 The first church (Cong.) was formed in 1805.4

1 No. 4, or "Howard," of the "eleven Towns." It fell to the share of Harrison and Hoffman, and by them was sold to Gen. Henry Champion, of Colchester, Conn., and Lemuel Storrs. It was settled under Judge Noadiah Hubbard and Alfred Lathrop, agents of the last named proprietor. The name was given in honor of Gen. Champion, who presented the town with a bell for the compliment.
2 Considerable amounts of lumber, oil, flour, and cloth are manufactured in this village.
3 Among the first settlers, who came in 1798 ! 99, were John, Thos. And Salmon Ward, David and Saml. Starr, Joel Mix, Ephm. Chamberlain, Jonathan Mitchell, Bela Hubbard, and David Miller. The first school was taught by E. Chamberlain, in 1800. The first sawmill was built in 1802, by John Eggleson and Wm. Hadsall. The first grist mill was built at West Carthage, by David Coffeen, in 1806. A furnace was built at the same place in 1834, and about 1000 tons of iron produced. Several prominent lawyers, among who were Moss Kent, brother of the chancellor, Egbert Ten Eyck, and Henry R. Storrs, settled in Champion, in expectation of its becoming the co. seat of the new co. to be erected in Oneida.
4 Rev. Nathl. Dutton was the first regular settled pastor in the town and co. There are 6 churches in town; 2 Cong., 2 M.E., Bap., and Union.

CLAYTON was formed from Orleans and Lyme, April 27, 1833, and named in honor of John M. Clayton, U.S. Senator from Del. It is centrally situated on the N.W. border of the co. It embraces two-fifths of Penets Square, a gore W. and another N. of that tract, and Grindstone and several smaller islands in the St. Lawrence. The surface is level, or slightly rolling. Water lime has been manufactured in considerable quantities. Clayton,1 (p.v.,) situated at the mouth of French Creek,2 is largely engaged in the lumber trade and in ship building.3 Pop. 896. Depauville4 (p.v.) is situated at the head of navigation on Chaumont (Sha-mo) River, (or Catfish Creek) 6 mi. from the bay. Pop. 386. Clayton Center is a p.o. Settlement commenced in 1803, but progressed slowly until after the war. For many years the titles to the portions included in Penets square and the islands became the subject of much controversy and litigation. In early times the shores of St. Lawrence in this and adjoining towns became the scene of many lawless adventures in the prosecution of smuggling.5 In 1813, the enemy attacked the advanced guard of Wilkinson's expedition, commanded by Gen. Brown, at Bartlets Point, but were repulsed. The census reports 7 churches in town.6

1 Formerly called "Cornelia," and still frequently called "French Creek." A party of Patriots made this place their rendezvous in preparing to invade Canada. The same party took possession of Hickory Island; but upon the approach of the British they fled, leaving their armament behind.
2 This stream is called by the Indians Wet-er-ingh-ra-gu-en-te-re, or "Fallen Fort," from a fort taken by the Oneidas from another tribe long before the advent of the whites.
3 The timber is brought in vessels from the upper lakes, and here made up into rafts. Most of the steamers belonging to the American Line have been built at this port and at Wolf Island.
4 De-po-ville. Named from Francis Depau, an early proprietor. The place was formerly known as "Catfish Falls." Stephen Johnson built the first mill and opened the first store at this place in 1824.
5 During the embargo of 1808 a road was cut through the woods, and immense quantities of potash were taken to Canada without restraint.
6 4 M. E., and one each Bap., R.C., and Union.

ELLISBURGH1 - was formed from Mexico, Feb. 22, 1803. Henderson was set off in 1806. It is situated in the S.W. corner of the co., upon the shore of Lake Ontario. The surface is rolling and inclined toward the lake. A range of low sand hills extend along the shore, and these are succeeded by a wide marshy region, producing wild grasses that in dry seasons may be mown. North and south Sandy Creeks are the principal streams. The soil is sandy on the W., clayey through the center, and a slaty loam in the E. There is a sulphur spring in town. This is the wealthiest agricultural town in the co. and is surpassed by but few in the state. Ellis Village,2 (Ellisburgh p.o.,) situated on S. Sandy Creek, 4 mi. from it.s mouth, has a limited amount of manufactures. Pop. 230. Belleville,3 (p.v.,) is situated on N. Sandy Creek, 3 mi. from Ellis Village, and on the S.H. & E. R. R. Pop. 363. The Union Literary Society (academy) is located here. Pierrepont Manor,4 (p.v.,) at the junction of the W. & R. and S. H. & E. R. R., contains 255 inhabitants. Woodville,5 (p.v.,) is situated on N. Sandy Creek Pop. 180. Mannsville,6 (p.v.,) on Skinners Creek and the W. & R. R. R., has a population of 315. Rural Hill7 (p.o.) and Wardwell (p.o.) are hamlets. Lyman Ellis and a large number of others made the first settlement, in 1797.8 A tract of 3000 acres in the S.W. corner of the town was sold by Wm. Constable, in 1796, to Brown and Eddy, and was settled by squatters. Upon the advent of the first settlers, near Ellis Village, on Sandy Creek, were found numerous traces of an early occupation by civilized races.9 During the war an engagement took place near the mouth of S. Sandy Creek, between a party of 150 American regulars and a few militia and Indians, under Maj. Appling, and a party of 200 British, who were pursuing a flotilla of boats, commanded by Lieut. Woolsey, laden with stores for Sackets Harbor. The British were defeated, and nearly the whole party were killed or taken prisoners.10 The census reports 11 churches in town.11

1 Named from Marvel Ellis, an early proprietor, and Lyman Ellis, the first settler.
2 The oldest settlement in the co.
3 Named from Belleville, in Canada.
4 It is the residence of Hon. Wm. C. Pierrepont, from whom the village derives its name.
5 Named from Ebenezer, Ephraim, and Jacob Wood, the first settlers.
6 Named from Col. H. B. Mann, who erected a factory at this place, but which was afterward burned.
7 Formerly called "Buck Hill". 8 Among the first settlers were Caleb Ellis, Robert Fulton, Elijah Richardson, Hez. Pierce, Chauncey Smith, Wm. Root, Vial Salisbury, Isaac Waddle, and Abram Wilcox. The early settlers suffered much from sickness. The first child born was Ontario Pierce, and the first death that of Caleb Ellis. Lyman Ellis built the first sawmill in 1797 and the first grist mill in 1803.
9 It is probable that the French Expedition, under De La Barre, against the Onondagas in 1684, met with their terrible disasters from famine and sickness within the limits of this town.
10 The stores were taken by land from this point to the "Harbor." Among them was a cable weighing 9600 lbs., which was too heavy for loading upon any wagon that could be obtained. It was accordingly placed on the shoulders of 250 men and carried to its place of destination. As the bearers approached the harbor, the sailors met them with loud cheers, relieved them of their burden, and marched triumphantly into the village.
11 3 Bap., 2 Cong., 2 M.E., Presb., Prot. E., Univ., Union.

HENDERSON1 - was formed from Ellisburgh, Feb. 17, 1806. It lies on Lake Ontario, S.W. of the center of the co. The surface is rolling; and it is deeply indented by Henderson bay, formed by a long rocky point known as Six-Town point.2 There are in town two small lakes and several marshes. Stony and Little Stony creeks are the principal streams. The soil is clay and loam. Henderson3 (p.v.) is situated near the center, on Stony Creek. Pop. 401. Henderson Harbor4 contains 12 houses; and Smithville5 (p.o.) 40. Roberts Corners (p.o.) is a hamlet. Settlement was begun in 1802, under Asher Miller, agent for the proprietor.6 At the head of Henderson bay is a curved embankment or bar of stone, 100 rods long, and a little above the water, known as "Indian Wharf;" and from this point to Stony Creek there was an Indian trail or portage. The census reports 5 churches in town.7

1 No. 6 of the "Eleven Towns." Named from Wm. Henderson, the proprietor. It embraces the adjacent islands on the lake.
2 Upon this point are the remains of a small 4 sided fortification, evidently built during the French or Revolutionary war.
3 Formerly called "Salisbury Mills" from Lodowyck Salisbury, an early merchant and mill owner.
4 The bay upon which this place is situated was called the "Bay of Naples" by Henderson, the proprietor.
5 Named from Jesse Smith, who, from a common laborer, became one of the most extensive lumber dealers in the county, and a man of influence. It is on the line of Adams.
6 Among the first settlers were Anthony Sprague, Levi Scofield, Jedediah McComber, Samuel Hubbard, Moses Barret, Wm. Petty, and Daniel Spencer. Willis Fellows kept the first inn and built the first saw mill and grist mill. The first child born was Betsy Scofield, and the first death, that of a child of Hosea Heath. Elisha Skinner taught the first school. A small woolen factory was erected in 1814. A Scotch settlement was made in 1803-07, on the bay. A lighthouse was erected on Stony Point in 1837.
7 2 M.E.., E. Luth., Univ., and Union.

HOUNSFIELD1-was formed from Watertown, Feb. 17, 1806. It is situated on Black River Bay, on the W. border of the co. Its surface is very level, and the soil is a clayey and sandy loam. Ship building and manufacturers have received considerable attention. Sackets Harbor2 (p.v.) is the principal village. Pop. 994. This was the principal military and navel station on the northern frontier during the last war with Great Britain, and millions of dollars were spent in fortifications and in building vessels. East Hounsfield (p.v.) and Stowells Corners (p.o.) are hamlets. Amasa Fox was the first settler. In 1802 there were 30 families in town.3 In 1805 several English families came in.4 During the war this town was the center of important military events. Several expeditions were here fitted out against Canada; and, in turn, the town was invaded on several occasions.5 Large bodies of troops were frequently quartered here, and the citizens became familiar with the lights and shades of military life.6 After the war most of the troops were withdrawn, leaving only enough to keep the works in repair. In 1832 a canal, for hydraulic purposes, was completed from Huntington's Mills, above Watertown, to Sackets Harbor; but in almost ten years it was abandoned.7 Dr. Samuel Guthrie, one of the discoverers of chloroform, and inventor of the percussion compound for firearms, which has superseded flints, resided at Sackets Harbor. A Union school was established in the village in 1840. There are 5 churches in town.8

1 The town embraces No. 1, or "Hesiod," of the "Eleven Towns," and was named for Ezra Hounsfield, one of the early proprietors. In the division it fell to the share of Harrison and Hoffman; and by them the W. half was sold to Champion and Storrs, and the remainder to Peter Kemble and E. Hounsfield. It was called "Newport" in early documents. Gull, Snake, Great and Little Galloo, and Stony Islands belong to this town. Upon Galloo Island a lighthouse was erected in 1820.
2 Named from Augustus Sacket, the first settler. Called by the Indians Ga-hu.-a-go-je-twa-da-a.-lote, fort at the mouth of Great River. Incorp. April 15, 1814. A collection district was formed in 1805. Madison Barracks, built in 1816-19 at a cost of 85,000, are the principal military works. Upon the point in the harbor is the hull of the frigate New Orleans, sheltered by a house built over it. It was commenced during the war, but has never been finished. It measured 32 tons, and was pierced for 110 guns. The frigate Chippewa, of like dimensions, built farther up the bay, has been taken down.
3 Among these were Wm. and John Evans, Squire Reed, Amasa Hollibut, and Charles Baird.
4 Among these were Saml. Luff, his sons Edmund, Saml., Jr., Joseph, and Jesse, David Merritt, William Ashby, John Roots, Henry Metcalf, and Geo. Slowman. Dr. Wm. Baker, who settled in 1803, was the first physician; Ambrose Pease and Step. Simmons were early innkeepers, and Loren Buss and Hezekiah Doolittle, early merchants. In 1808 Samuel F. Hooker brought in a stock of goods worth $20,000. Meetings were first held by Edmund Luff, who built a church, and preached many years without fee or reward. Elisha Camp settled in 1804, as a lawyer and agent, and has since been more prominently concerned in the affairs of the town than any other person. Samuel Luff buil the first grist mill, Augustus Sacket, the first sawmill, and Solon Stone, the first cotton factory, on Mill Creek. The first child born in town was Wealthy Rowlison. At an early period, John Jacob Astor and other capitalists invested large sums here in the manufacture of potash, that article commanding $200 to $350 per ton in the Montreal market.
5 See endnotes.
6 About a dozen military executions took place here during the war. A duel was fought with muskets, June 13, 1818, between two soldiers, one of whom was killed. During the command of Col. Brady at this station, the remains of Gens. Zebulon M. Pike and Leonard Covington, col. John Tuttle, Lieut. Cols. Electus Backus, timothy Dix, Jr., and John Mills, Maj. John Johnson, and Lieut. Michael P. Vanderventer, officers who had been killed or had died of sickness during the war, were collected, and buried in one grave. A monument of painted pine boards was erected to their memory by a grateful country; but it soon rotted down, and there is a strong probability that the place of their interment will be forgotten.
7 This canal was 20 feet wide at the top, 12 at the bottom, and 4 feet deep.
8 M.E., Prot. E., Presb., Christian, and Seventh Day Bap.

LE RAY1-was formed from Brownville, Feb. 17, 1806. Antwerp was taken off in 1810, a part of Wilna in 1813, and a part of Philadelphia and Alexandria in 1821. It is an interior town E. of the center of the co. The surface is level, or gently rolling, and the soil is principally a clayey loam. A strip of barren sand, once covered with pine, but now almost a desert, extends along the Black River. The streams are Black and Indian Rivers, Pleasant Creek, and several small brooks. Le Raysville2 (p.v.) contains 22 houses. Evans Mills3 (p.v.) is situated on Pleasant Creek and the P. & W.R.R. Pop. 410. Sandfords Corners, (p.v.,) on the P. & W.R.R., contains a dozen houses. Black River,4 a village of 50 houses, is partly in this town. The first settlement was made in 1802, by a party under Benj. Brown, agent for Le Ray.5 Le Ray removed to this place in 1808, and begun a liberal system of settlement, by opening roads and building bridges and mills. The census reports 6 churches.6

1 Named for James Le Ray de Chaumont, the proprietor.
2 The land office for much of the land in the co. N. and E. of the river was located here until 1835, when it was removed to Carthage. P.S. Stewart has been the agent many years.
3 Named from Ethni Evans, who built the first mill in 1805- 06.
4 This village is locally known as "Lockport." A trace of an ancient Indian fort was found near it; another 1 mi. N.; and another near Sandfords Corners.
5 Among these first settlers were David coffeen , Dyer Rhodes, Gershom and John Matoon, Joseph Child and sons. Thomas Ward, William Cooper,and Benj. Kirkbride. The first child born was Abi Brown; the first marriage, that of Jonas Allen and Sarah Dyke; and the first death, that of Chester Ballou. Margaret Comstock taught the first school.
6 Bap., Friends, M.E., Presb., R.C., and Union.

LORRAINE1- was formed from Mexico, March 24, 1804, as "Malta." Its name was changed April 6, 1808. Worth was taken off in 1848. It is the central town on the S. border of the co. The town is elevated, and is underlaid by slate and traversed by immense gulfs. The surface is rolling, and the soil is a clay and loam. It is mostly drained by Sandy and Skinners Creeks. Lorraine, (p.v.,) the only village, contains about 30 houses. Settlement was begun in 1802, by James McKee and Elijah Fox.2 The state road from Rome to Sackets Harbor was laid through this town in 1804. A sulphur spring is found on the farm of ----Totman. The town has 2 churches, Bap. And M.E.

1 This town embraces "Attiens" or No. 1, of the Boylston tract.
2 In the following year, Comfort Stancliff, Benjamin Gates, Seth Cutler, John Alger, and others, came in. McKee and Fox kept the first inn. Mr. Frost built the first sawmill, and Mr. Cutler the first grist mill in 1804. The first death was that of A.M. Child, killed by a falling tree.

LYME1- Was formed from Brownville, March 6, 1818. A part of Clayton was taken off in 1833, and Cape Vincent in 1849. It lies upon Chaumont Bay, in the W. part of the co. The surface is very level. The W. border is deeply indented by Chaumont Bay2 and its branches. The soil is principally clay. There are several sulphur springs in town. Near Chaumont are extensive and valuable limestone quarries.3 Chaumont (p.v.) is situated on the bay at the mouth of Chaumont River. Pop. 306. Three Mile Bay4 (p.v.) lies upon a bay of the same name. Pop. 295. Point Peninsula (p.o.) is a scattered settlement containing 25 houses. The first settlement was begun under Jonas Smith and Henry A. Delamater, agents for Le Ray, in 1801.5 The first location was 2 miles above Chaumont; but in 1805 the settlers removed to the site of the present village. During several years much sickness prevailed; but this gradually disappeared as the co. became more settled. In 1812 the inhabitants, numbering about a dozen families, built a blockhouse, which was taken and destroyed by the enemy. The first church (Bap.) was organized in 1816.6

1 Name selected by Eben. Kelsey, a native of Lyme, Conn.
2 Name derived from Le Ray Chaumont. Upon old maps this bay is named "Niahoure," " Niaoure," and "Nivernois." The name is probably derived from that of the Duc de Nivernois, a French nobleman.
3 The limestone quarries of this place have furnished large quantities of stone for the piers at Oswego, locks on the canal, and for other public works.
4 Name given for its being 3 miles W. of Chaumont. This bay is celebrated for its fisheries. In 1856, $90,000 worth of fish were taken, consisting principally of "ciscoes" (lake herring) and whitefish. It has been the seat of considerable ship building.
5 Among the first settlers were Richard M. Esselstyn, T. Wheeler, Peter Pratt, and Jonas David and Timothy Soper. James Horton was the first settler on Point Salubtious, in 1806.
6 The census reports 6 churches; 2 M.E., 2 Bap., Presb., and Free W. Bap.

ORLEANS was formed from Brownville, April 3, 1821. A part of Pamelia was taken off April 1, 1829, and a part of Clayton in 1833. The boundary was between Orleans and Alexandria has twice been changed. It lies on the N. border of the co., and embraces the W. part of Wells and several smaller islands in the St. Lawrence. The surface is level, or slightly rolling. The principal streams are Perch River, Catfish and Mullet Creeks. Perch Lake lies upon the S. boundary. The soil is clay and loam. La Fargeville,1 (p.v.,) on Chaumont River, near the center of the town, is the seat of Orleans Academy. Pop. 295. Omar,2 (p.o.,) on Mullet Creek, and Stone Mills,3 (p.o.,) are small villages. Orleans 4 Corners, (p.o.,) Port Orleans, and Collins Landing are hamlets. Penets Square, which embraced most of this town, was settled by squatters.4 The first settlements commenced about 1806.5 In 1824, John La Farge, a large owner in these lands, came into town to assert his claim. After a great deal of difficulty and some resistance, he succeeded in establishing his title. In 1838 the mansion and farm of La Farge, 1 mi. S. of the village, were purchased by Bishop Dubois as the site for a Catholic Seminary. This institution, named "St. Vincent de Paul," combining a theological seminary and classical boarding school, was soon after open; but in two or three years it was removed to Fordham, Westchester co., and was afterward incorp. As St. John's College. Rock Island Lighthouse was built in 1853. The British steamer Sir Robert Peel was plundered and burned on the night of May 29, 1838, while taking in wood at Wells Island, in this town, by a party of 22 self-styled patriots, led by Bill Johnston.6 The census reports 8 churches.7

1 Named from John La Farge, the proprietor; formerly known as "Log Mills."
2 Named from a character in one of Johnson's allegories, found in the English Reader: formerly called "Mudges Mills."
3 Formerly called "Collins Mills," from John B. Collins, owner.
4 The improvident waste of timber and the slovenly clearings made by this lawless set promised little in the way of civilization: and their appearance, as they emerged from the swamps with an ox harnessed to a crotched piece of wood, laden with a trough full of black salts. or, as they returned in like manner, with a sack of meal and a jug of whiskey, was little calculated to inspire hope of speedy improvement. They had a kind of law among themselves in relation to land, and were accustomed to run "possession lines" by lopping down bushes. "Claims" were often sold and secured by quit claim deeds.
5 Among the first settlers were Roderic C Frazier, Peter Pratt, Dr. Reuben Andrus, Samuel and Daniel Ellis, and others. Alvah Goodman kept the first inn; Lemuel George, the first store; Collins & Pratt erected the first grist mill, and Dr. Andrus, the first sawmill, in 1819.
6 After driving the passengers ashore and plundering the boat, the brigands cast her off from the shore and set her on fire. Large rewards were offered for their apprehension, and several persons were arrested, but none convicted. In 1852, Johnston was appointed keeper of the Rock Island Light, which shines on the spot where the Peel was burned.
7 Two Evang. Luth., Bap., Cong., M.E., R.C., Wes. Meth., and Union.

PAMELIA1 - was formed from Brownville, April 12, 1819. In 1824 its name was changed to 'Leander;' but soon after the former name was restored. A portion of Orleans was annexed April 1, 1824. It is the central town of the co. The surface is level, or gently undulating, and the soil is clay and sand. Near the cascade opposite Watertown are several caves in the limestone rock.2 In the vicinity of Perch Lake have been found several barrows, or sepulchral mounds. Pamelia Village and Juhelville3 - the former opposite the lower part and the later the upper part of Watertown Village- are places of considerable manufacturers,4 and have each 200 to 300 inhabitants. Pamelia Four corners (p.v.,) contains about 30 houses. The first settlement began in 1799.5 The census reports 2 churches.6

1 Named from the wife of Gen. Jacob Brown. Her maiden name was Pamelia Williams.
2 These caverns have been traced nearly 500 feet. Just below and partly under the village of Juhelville, the open mouths of several caves appear on the river bank, opening at both ends on the cliff. The passages are lined with calcareous deposits, in the form of agaric mineral, stalactites, and tufa. These caves are evidenly all formed by currents of water flowing through the natural seams in the rock and gradually wearing away the soluble and yielding limestone. In the rear of the principal cavern a large area has sunk to a considerable depth, as though a portion had fallen in.
3 Named from Madame Juhel, a relative of the Le Ray family.
4 These manufacturers consist of lumber, spirits, leather, cotton yarn, and portable steam engines.
5 The first settlers were Wm. Cooper and Wm. Watkins. Anson Sigourney taught the first school; Samuel Mack kept the first inn, Jabez Foster, the first store; and Tuttle and Bailey built the first mill.
6 M.E. and Union.

PHILADELPHIA was formed from Le Ray, April 3, 1821. It is an interior town, E. of the center of the co. Its surface is level in the E., but rocky and broken in the W. The soil is generally a clayey loam. Indian River and Black Creek are the principal streams. Iron ore is found in considerable quantities. The principal bed that is worked is known as the Shurtliff mine. In Sterlingville is a large chalybeate spring. Philadelphia,1 (p.v.,) upon Indian River, has 55 houses, and Sterlingville,2 (p.v.,) upon Black Creek, 40. At the latter place are a large blast furnace3 and a forge.4 The first settlement was commenced in 1804, by Friends from Penn. and N.J.5 In 1810 the Friends erected a building which for 17 years was used as a school and meeting house.6

1 Often called "Quaker Settlement" by the old inhabitants.
2 Named from James Sterling, the owner of the iron works. Formerly called "De Launey's Mill," from the builder of the first mill, in 1807.
3 Built in 1837, by James Sterling. The ore is principally obtained from the Sterling mine of Antwerp, and the Shurtliff mine of this town, near the line of Theresa, the ore from the latter being used principally as a flux.
4 Built by Caleb Essington, in 1839.
5 These settlers purchased 16 lots of 440 acres each, lying in the corners of a square containing 25 lots, of which the central range each way was reserved by Le Ray. The center lot, (No. 611) embracing the site of the present village, was conveyed to trustees "for the promotion of religion and learning" under the care of the Quakers. This trust afterward occasioned much contention, and led to a miniature anti-rent war. The matter was finally settled in 1844. Cadwallader Child, Mordecai Taylor, and Samuel Evans came in the first year. Robert Comfort kept the first inn, Saml. Case, the first store, and Thos. And John Townsend built the first mill. Anna Comstock kept the first school. The first child born was John Townsend, and the first death that of a daughter of Robt. Comfort in 1807.
6 The census reports 5 churches; 2 M.E., Bap., Friends, Univ.

RODMAN1 - was formed from Adams, March 24, 1804, under the name of "Harrison." Its name was changed April 6, 1808. A part of Pinckney (Lewis co.) was taken off in 1808. It lies upon the borders of Lewis, in the S. part of the co. The surface is hilly, and broken by the deep ravines of Sandy Creek and its branches. The soil is generally a fertile, gravelly loam. There are 3 sulphur springs in town. Rodman (p.v.) has 45 houses, Zoar and Whitesville2 (E. Rodman p.o.) each about 20. Settlement began in 1801, and from 1803 to 1806 it progressed with great rapidity.3 In 1813 an epidemic prevailed, causing 60 deaths in 3 months. The census reports 3 churches.4

1 It embraces No. 8, or "Orpheus," of the "Eleven Towns." Its former name was from Richard Harrison, of N.Y., a proprietor; and its present one, from Daniel Rodman, of Hudson, Clerk of the assembly in 1808-09.
2 Named from Thos. White, sub-agent and early settler.
3 Among the settlers who came in this year were Anson and Ebenezer Moody, Noah, Jonathan, and Aaron Davis, Benj. Thomas, Wm. Rice, and Simeon Hunt. Miss M. Nobles taught the first school, in Anson Moody's barn in 1803. Willard Sykes kept the first store; and Wm. Rice built the first sawmill, in 1804, and gristmill in 1806. The first child born was Walter Harrison Moody; and the first death, that of the same child, 3 years after. His father received 50 acres of land from Mr. Harrison for the name. Timothy Greenly moved into the S.W. corner of the town in 1803.
4 2 M.E., Cong.

RUTLAND - was formed from Watertown, April 1, 1802. It lies upon the S. bank of Black River, E. of the center of the co. Its surface consists of the narrow river valley on the N., a terraced plateau in the center, and a hilly region in the S. The central plateau, embracing the greater part of the town, is 300 to 400 feet above the flat country farther N., and it descends by a succession of steep declivities to the level of the river. It is underlaid by Trenton limestone. Upon the S. the surface gradually rises to the summits of the slate hills which occupy the S. part of the co. A remarkable valley, known as 'Rutland Hollow,' extends through the town upon the lower terrace of the plateau, parallel to the river. It is deeply excavated in the limestone, and appears like the bed of an ancient river. Another valley, smaller and deeper, extends in the same direction across the summit of the plateau, and forms the bed of a deep, narrow lake. Pleasant Lake, in Champion, is situated in the continuation of the latter valley. These valleys and terraces seem the result of abrasion rather than of upheaval. Upon the edge of the terrace, 100 feet below the summit, may be seen the ancient lake ridge before described. There are 2 or 3 sulphur springs in town. The soil is very fertile loam upon the plateau, and a sandy loam upon the river. Felts Mills,_ (p.v.,) on Black River, contains 50 houses; Black River,_ (p.v.,) on the river, partly in this town and partly in Le Ray, 40; Tylerville,_ (South Rutland p.o.,) in the narrow valley of Sandy Creek, 30; and Rutland Center,_ (Rutland p.o.,) 10. This town fell to the share of Wm. Henderson, and settlement was begun in 1799, under Asher Miller, his agent. The greater part of Rutland was sold_ to New England farmers, who came in within 3 years after the first settlement._ An old Indian fort is to be seen on the farm of Geo. Wilson; and a bone pit was found near the line of Watertown. The census reports 5 churches._

1 No. 3 or "Milan," of the "Eleven Towns." Named from Rutland, Vt., the former home of an early settler.
2 Named from John Felt, who purchased the site in 1813, and still resides here. Formerly the seat of an extensive lumber manufactory; now changed to a tannery.
3 Locally known as "Lockport." See note 4 under town of Le Ray.
4 Named from Josiah and Frederick Tyler, early settlers.
5 On some maps called "Brooksville," from Curtis G. Brooks.
6 17,549 acres were sold, in farms within 3 years, for $50,738.
7 Among the settlers who came in during the first and second years were Levi Miller, Perley and Wm. Keyes, David and Goldsmith Coffeen, Amos Stebbins, Raphael Porter, Israel Wright, Jonathan and Clark Ross, Jas. Kilham, Chas. Kelsey, Jeplitha King, John Dale, C. Cummings, Gardner Cleveland, Warren Foster, and John Cotes. Miss A. Porter taught the first school, in 1803. Levi Butterfield kept the first inn, and Jacob Williams the first store. David Coffeen built the first gristmill in the co., near the mouth of Mill Creek. In the present village of Felts Mills, in 1801, and a sawmill in 1802. The first child born was in the family of Chas. Kelsey, and the first death, that of Mrs. Francis Towne. 8 2 M.E., 2 Union, and Cong.

THERESA was formed from Alexandria, April 15, 1841, and named from a daughter of Le Ray. It is the central town upon the N.W. border of the co. The surface along Indian River is broken, and traversed by ridges of gneiss rock, with fertile intervales. A part of the town, underlaid by sandstone, is level or undulating. In the primary regions are a number of romantic lakes; and some of these have highly interesting mineral localities upon their shores and islands.1 Theresa, (p.v.,) upon the High Falls2 of the Indian River, was early selected by Le Ray as a favorable point for settlement, and about 1810 he caused several 'jobs' to be cleared and a sawmill to be built.3 West Theresa is a p.o. A furnace, built near Millseat Lake in 1847, was in part supplied with ores from the vicinity. A private academy has been taught several years. The census reports 3 churches.4

1 _ Flourspar, sulphate of barytes, sulphurets of iron and copper, phosphate of lime, zircon, feldspar, tourmaline, hyalite, pyroxene, rensselaerite, idocrase, calcite, phlogopite, and other minerals are found in this locality, and some of them are beautifully crystallized. Iron ore has been found in considerable quantity.
2 The river here descends 85 feet within a quarter of a mile. From this place to Rossie its banks are low, and large tracts are often overflowed, causing much sickness. A small steamer has run upon this part of the river.
3 Among the first settlers were James Shurtliff, Anson and Jeremiah Cheeseman, M.B. Ashley, Sylvester Bodman, Azariah Walton, Col. S. Ball, Abram Morrow, Joseph Miller, Archibald Fisher, Jas. Lake, Ebenezer and N.W. Lull, and J.D. Davison. Mr. Lull built the first store, in 1820. Dr. Jas. Brooks, the first physician, settled in 1822 and died the next year. The first school was taught by Lindley Gibbs at Hyde Lake. The first child born was Fanny A. Cole, May 26, 1819. The first marriage was that of Ebenezer Lull and Almira Barnes. The first death was that of Mr. Casselman, who was drowned. A gristmill and inn were erected in 1819 for the proprietor.
4 Presb., M.E., and Prot. E.

WATERTOWN1 - was formed from Mexico, March 14, 1800. Rutland was taken off in 1802, and Hounsfield in 1806. It lies upon Black River, S.W. of the center of the co. The surface in the S.E. part is broken by the irregular terraces of the Trenton limestone, and in the N. it is level or rolling. The river bank is rocky throughout its whole extent; and in the village, about 3 mi. below, are several extensive caves. It is an important agricultural town; but it is chiefly distinguished for the extent of its trade and manufactures. In amount of business it is unsurpassed by any town in Northern N.Y. Watertown,2 (p.v.,) the co. seat, pleasantly situated upon the S. bank of Black River, was incorp. April 5, 1816. Pop. 5873. It contains an academy,3 4 newspaper offices, 5 banks, and 9 churches. Black river here flows, for the space of a mile, in a succession of rapids over the limestone terraces, affording an abundance of water power, which is largely improved, making the village one of the most important manufacturing places in the state.4 Three roads and 2 R.R. bridges cross the river within the limits of the village: one of the former is a wire suspension bridge. An ice cave, near Whittlesays Point,5 extends under a part of the village. By an act passed March 22, 1853, a board of water commissioners was created, with power to borrow $50,000 for the construction of water works for the village. The work was finished during the following summer. The water is taken from the river, near the upper part of the village, and thrown by water power into a reservoir 200 feet above the village, and about 1 mi. distant; and from the reservoir it is distributed though the streets. A beautiful fountain is constructed in the center of the principal square.6 At an early day, two rectangular pieces of land were given by the owners of the adjacent lots for public use;7 and these now constitute beautiful public squares.8 Burrs Mills9 (p.o.) is a hamlet, on Cold Creek, in the E. part of the town. Watertown Center and Fields Settlement are hamlets. Henry Coffeen and Zachariah Butterfield were the pioneer settlers, in 1800. They located upon the present site of the village.10 An arsenal was built at Watertown in 1809, and a building for an academy in 1811; the latter was used as a hospital during the war. The census reports 10 churches.11

1 Its present limits embrace No. 2, or "Leghorn," of the "Eleven Towns." It first contained Nos. 1, 2, and 3.
2 First settled in 1800; and became the co. seat in 1805. In 1849 the business portion was almost destroyed by fire, but it recovered from the disaster in 2 years.
3 The Watertown Academy was incorp. May 2, 1835, and a large academic building was erected in a grove in the S.E. part of the village. It was soon after merged in the Black River Literary and Religious Institute, founded under the joint auspices of the Watertown Presbytery and B.R. (Cong.) Assoc. in 1836. In May, 1846, its name was changed to the Jefferson County Institute.
4 During the war a factory was built, at a cost of $75,000, for the manufacture of cotton and woolen cloths. In 1827, Levi Beebe purchased Cowans Island and erected upon it an immense stone cotton factory. It had just been put in operation when, July 7, 1833, it was burned, under suspicious circumstances. The loss was $200,000; and the site has since remained a ruin. The manufactures of cotton and woolen goods, flour, paper, iron castings, machinery, leather, agricultural implements, lead pipe, sash and blinds, and furniture, are extensively carried on.
5 Named from the wife of Samuel Whittlesey, who in 1815, threw herself from this point into the river, and was drowned. Her husband, a lawyer, and paymaster to the drafted militia, had received in N.Y. the sum of $30,000, in bills, and while returning to Watertown, was secretly robbed of $8700 by his wife. He was greatly alarmed, but was persuaded by her to keep quiet, as it would be difficult to convince the public that a thief would have left so large a portion, and, as they must themselves by suspected of having taken a part, they might as well keep the whole. Her logic succeeded upon the weak-minded old man, and before reaching home she had matured plans for concealment and evasion. He started with his portmanteau for Oneida co., leaving appointments along the road for paying for paying on his return: but on arriving at Trenton he found he had been robbed. The news of the robbery spread quickly over the country; but the most active inquiry and very liberal rewards failed to bring the thief to justice. On his return home he met his family frantic with grief; but there was an inconsistency in his story, and upon a searching conversation, held separately, with his two bondsmen, Perley Keyes and Jason Fairbanks, the latter were convinced that there was fraud. By an ingenious coarse of inquiry and cavesdropping, they were not only confirmed in belief, but assured that the family soon intended to remove, and that summary means must be employed to recover the money. They accordingly invited W. to take a walk, which led as if by accident to a lonely spot near the village, previously prepared, where they suddenly charged him with the robbery and threatened instant drowning unless he disclosed. He was twice submerged and life nearly extinguished, when he confessed and was liberated. The money was found sewed into a pair of drawers fitted to be worn by either husband or wife. Mrs. W. immediately after slipped away from the crowd unobserved, rushed down to the river, and was drowned.--Hough's Hist. Jeff. Co., p. 263.
6 An Artesian well was bored 127 feet deep upon Factory Square in 1829, and a copious supply of water was obtained, slightly impregnated with sulphur and iron.
7 These lots are respectively 12 by 28 and 9 by 32 rods.
8 The principal business of the village is located around the Square and upon Court St.
9 Named from John Burr & Sons, who settled here in 1804. Hart Massey built a saw and a gristmill here, in 1801, for Low, the proprietor.
10 Oliver Bartholomew came in the same year, (1801) and in 1802, about 80 families arrived. Jonathan Cowen built the first gristmill, in 1802, and Dr. Isaiah Massey opened the first inn the same year. In 1803, a bridge was built near the present courthouse. In 1805, Wm. Smith and John Paddock opened the first store; and a dam was built across Black River the same year. The first birth was in the family of Moses Bacon; and the first death, that of --- Thornton, who was killed by a falling tree.
11 Two Presb., 2 M.E., Bap.,Wes. Meth., Prot. E. R.C., Union, and Univ.

WILNA1- was formed from Le Ray, and Leyden (Lewis co.) April 2, 1813. It lies upon Black River, in the extreme E. part of the co. Its surface is somewhat broken. It is chiefly underlaid by the primary rock, which rises into low, naked ridges, and by calciferous sandstone. Black River forms its W. boundary; and upon it are a series of rapids, forming an abundance of water power.2 The Indian River, in the N. part, also affords water power at several places. At Natural Bridge this stream flows beneath the surface through passages worn in the coarse white limestone which here forms the surface rock. Several interesting minerals are found at this place. The soil is sandy and moderately fertile. Carthage3 (p.v.) is finely situated upon Black River, at the lower terminus of the B.R. Canal improvement. It contains 5 churches, a private academy,4 and is the seat of important manufactures.5 Pop. About 1,500. Natural Bridge,6 (p.v.,) on Indian River, contains 40 houses. Wilna and North Wilna are p. offices; and Wood Settlement is a hamlet. Settlement was commenced in 1798, at Carthage, by Henry Boutin, one of the French Company.7 The village and town were chiefly settled under Le Ray.8 The census reports 7 churches.9

1 Named from Wilna, in Russia, then fresh in memory from its battle.
2 After affording 42 mi. of navigation, the river here commences to descend by a series of rapids, extending to the lake, falling in all, 480 feet. The "Long Falls" here descend 55 feet in a distance of 5090; and in the rapids are about 50 small islands. The State Dam, built at this place, is 900 feet long, and the State Bridge 500.
3 Formerly called "Long Falls," Incorp. May 26, 1841. A bridge was erected here in 1813, by Ezra Church, for Russell Atwater and david Parish.
4 Erected by Harrison Miller in 1842; now owned and taught by B. F. Bush.
5 Consisting of iron, leather, lumber, staves, heading, &c.
6 Joseph Bonaparte, having purchased a large tract of land in this town and Diana, made this village his residence for two summers. It was laid out in 1818.
7 Jean B. Bossout, familiarly known as "Battice," kept the first inn and ferry.
8 The land office of Le Ray was removed from Le Raysville to Carthage in 1835, by Patrick Somerville Stewart.
9 2 Presb., 2 Prot., Meth., Bap., M.E., and R.C.

WORTH1 - was formed from Lorraine, April 12, 1848. It lies upon the high, slaty, and shaly ridges in the S. part of the co. It is 1200 to 1500 feet above tide, and is the most elevated land in the co. It is subject to deep snows and early frosts. Wherever the surface is exposed to the action of running water, deep gulfs have been worn in the soft and yielding rock. There are several sulphur springs in town. The soil is principally derived from the disintegration of the underlying rocks, and is well adapted to grazing. About one half of the town is settled. Worthville is a hamlet, and is the only p.o. The first settlement was made in 1802 by an association from Litchfield, Herkimer Co., who bought the N.W. quarter, balloted for the lots, built rude mills, and began small improvements.2 A part of the settlers left during the war, and during the succeeding cold seasons of 1816-17 the whole settlement was abandoned. Settlement was not recommenced until several years after. The census reports 1 church, (M.E.)

1 Named in honor of Gen. Wm. J. Worth. It comprises No. 2, or "Fenelon," of the Boylston Tract. The E. part was divided among several proprietors, to equalize the division of the "Eleven Towns." 2 Among the first settlers were Amos and Abijah Gillett, Nathan Matoon, W. Flower, Lodowyck Edwards, John Griswald, Asa Sweet, Abner Rising, and Phineas Rose. The first school was taught in a log barn in 1806. The first death was that of Elisha Sweet. L.B. Gillett kept the first inn and store.

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