Jefferson County, NY

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CENSUS FACTS from the Watertown Re-Union Newspaper,
published Watertown, NY, June 8, 1881, p. 5:


How It Has Changed During the Past Ninety Years
(reprinted from the Albany Sunday Argus Newspaper)

The centre of population, i.e., the centre of gravity of the people of the country--is a point to which much interest attaches. The following table shows its position and movement since the date of the first census:

Date   Approximate Location
1790  23 miles east of Baltimore
1800   18 miles west of Baltimore
1810   4 miles northwest by west of Washington
1820   16 miles north of Woodstock
1830   19 miles west-southwest of Moorefield
1840   16 miles south of Clarksburg
1850   23 miles southeast of Parkersburg
1860   20 miles south of Chillicothe
1870   48 miles east-by-north of Cincinnati
1880   8 miles west-by-south of Cincinnati

One of the most striking facts shown by this table, says the Census Superintendent, is the westward movement of the population. The total oscillation in latitude during the past ninety years amounts to only 18.6 minutes, or about 22 miles, while the change in latitude from its position in 1790 to the present time, is about 12.4 minutes, or less than sixteen miles. In this period of ninety years the total movement westward amounts to 457 miles. The ratio between the total southward and westward movement is one to twenty-nine. The greatest movement was during the decade which witnessed the settlement of the Mississippi Valley and the rush to California, that between 1850 and 1860. The next greatest is the decade just passed. During this period the centre has moved decidedly southward, nearly counterbalancing the movement northward during the ten years preceding.

BPC: the 2020 center of population is projeced to be in Wright county, MO, 8.5 miles north-northeast of Hartville, 37.371644N 92.478542W


Gleaned from the pages of the Watertown Re-Union Newspaper Published Watertown, NY

One cup sugar, one egg, one cup milk, three cups flour, three teaspoons baking power, half teaspoon salt; steam two and a half hours.

Remove the skins from a dozen tomatoes; cut them up in a saucepan; add a little butter, pepper and salt; when sufficiently boiled beat up five or six eggs, and just before you serve turn them into the saucepan with the tomatoes and stir one way for two minutes, allowing them time to be done thoroughly.

One of the best ways to cook rice, is to steam it; best because it is no trouble; all that is needed is to be sure to put in plenty of water. If you wish for rice pudding and have not planned for it hours before by cooking the rice in this way, you can have it in a surprisingly short time. One cup of rice will make croquettes and pudding enough for a family of four.

A favorite way to cook a whitefish is this: choose one that weighs about seven or eight pounds, boil it until it is done, then take out all the bones; take a quart of sweet milk, two onions and a little summer savory; boil until the milk is thoroughly seasoned, then thicken it with flour, using enough to make a thin paste; add butter, pepper and salt to suit your taste. Then put in a pudding dish a layer of fish and a layer of dressing. Cover the top with rolled cracker, as you do for scalloped oysters. Bake for three quarters of an hour or until the top is golden brown. Serve with mashed potatoes, spiced currants and the vegetables of the season.
9/28/1881 p1

Make a sponge of one quart of flour, half a pint of warm water and half a pint of milk, half a teaspoonful of salt, and yeast enough to lighten it. Add a tablespoonful melted butter and one of sugar. When ready to cook, drop spoonfuls of it into a little hot lard melted in a sauce pan on a griddle iron. Brown on one side and turn over and brown on the other side, and serve it piping hot.

Put some thin slices of bacon in a skillet and brown a little on both sides; then put in your peas, with one large onion cut in four, one head of lettuce with a few sprigs of parsley tied up, water enough to cover them; salt and pepper (not much salt as the bacon salts them); cook one hour. Ten minutes before serving sprinkle a little flour to thicken the gravy. Remove the bunch of lettuce and parsley.

Spring chickens have a great tendency to sprawl when set in a dish after they are broiled. To prevent this break their bones with a blow of the rolling pin, when they will remain in the form you place them in. To prevent the dryness of young chickens that are barbecued, oil them all over shortly before cooking, or dip them in melted butter. Have the fire very hot as for all broiling, add heat the gridiron very hot before placing your meats upon it.

Two scant tablespoonfuls of butter, two tablespoons of flour, two tablespoons of sugar, one cup of milk, four eggs. Let the milk come to a boil. Beat gradually, the boiling milk and cook eight minutes, stirring often. Beat the sugar and the yolks of the eggs together. Add to the cooked mixture and set away to cool. When cool beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth and add to the mixture. Bake in a buttered pudding dish for twenty minutes in a moderate oven. Serve immediately with creamy sauce.

Cut the cucumbers fully half an inch thick right through; put them in a saucepan, just covering them with hot water, and let them boil slowly for a quarter of an hour, or until tender; but not so as to break them; then drain them; you want now a pint of good cream, and put your cream, with a teaspoon of butter, in a saucepan, and when it is warm pop in the cucumbers; season with a little sale and white pepper, cook five minutes shaking the saucepan all the time, and serve hot. It is just as delicate as asparagus and a very nice dish indeed.
9/2/18881, p 1

Summer squash should be steamed and not boiled, as it will be less watery if steamed. Hubbard squash is nice cut in strips and baked; it is almost certain to be mealy.

Here is a recipe for a good and simple pudding: one pint of flour, half a cup of sugar, three quarters of a cup of sweet milk, one tablespoon of butter, two teaspoons of baking powder. Bake for twenty minutes; serve with any good pudding sauce.

One cup of Indian meal; one half cup of flour; one half cup of sugar; moisten with a little milk. Boil three pints of milk; pour slowly on the meal and stir until quite thick; add one-half cup of molasses and a little salt. Bake in an earthen dish two hours.

Four cups corn meal, one cup wheat flour, one egg, butter size of a walnut, one half teaspoon of salt, three teaspoons of baking powder; mix with milk to make a thin batter, bake in gem pans or bread pans in a quick oven. A tablespoon of sugar or molasses may be added.

Let the tomatoes be thoroughly ripe and let them lie in strong salt and water for three or four days; then put them down in layers in jars, mixing with them small onions and pieces of horseradish; then pour on vinegar, cold, after having spiced it. Use plenty of spice, cover carefully and let stand for a month before using.

Take sold and white cauliflower; pull apart in bunches, spread on an earthen dish; lay salt all over them, and let them stand three days; then put them into earthen jars and pour boiling salt and water over them; let them stand all night, then drain, put into glass jars and fill up with white vinegar prepared the same as for the onions.

After they are taken out of the brine take a lump of alum and a horse radish cut in strips; put this in the vinegar, and it will make them hard and crisp. When you wish to make a few cucumber pickles quick, take good cider vinegar; heat it boiling hot and pour it over them. When cool they are ready for use.
9/14/1881 p 7

To bake them nicely, the cores should always be removed with the apple corer; then put the applies into a tin dish, with a little boiling water in the bottom of it, and bake, until a fork will slip through them easily.

Remove the cores; wash the apples clean; put a teaspoon or two of sugar into the center of each apple; sprinkle a little ground cassia over the sugar, and put a small bit of butter on top of it. Bake in a slow over, so as not to burn the tops of the applies, until thoroughly done. If any syrup remains in the pan, turn it on the applies. Turn a very little boiling water into the pan when first put into the oven.

Grate three slices of stale bread, and slice thinly eight or ten applies, according to size. Butter a small, yellow nappy or a pudding mould, scatter in a layer of crumbs and some bits of butter over them; then a layer of the sliced apples, with sugar and a sprinkling of cinnamon, or allspice, or grated lemon; and so continue until the dish is well filled. the upper layer should be of bread crumbs and bits of butter. Bake one hour.

Core and pare as many tart apples as will fill a good sized pudding dish. Boil a teacupful of sugar with half a pint of water, and put in the apples to simmer, on both sides, a little while--not long enough break apart. Boil a quarter of a pound, or three tablespoons of rice, in just enough water or milk to swell it, and season with salt. Put a layer of the boiled rice at the bottom of the pudding dish, and place the apples upon it. Fill up their centres with rice and the spaces between the applies; turn the syrup over them. Fill up the dish with boiling hot milk and bake just long enough to brown it handsomely. Both these receipts are excellent for children, and also for invalids, being nutritious, wholesome and tempting to the appetite.
9/7/1881 p 4

Take a quarter of a pound of bitter almonds; put them into a bowl of boiling water, renewing the water as it cools, and letting them stand in it until the skins peel off; then throw them as they are blanched into a bowl of cold water, which will improve their whiteness; pound them one at a time in a mortar, pouring in frequently a few drops of rosewater, to prevent them from oiling and being heavy; cream together one pound of powdered sugar and three quarters of a pound of butter, and then add very gradually the pounded almonds, beating them in very hard; sift in a separate pan half a pound and two ounces of flour, and beat in another pan to a stiff froth the whites of 17 eggs; stir the flour and whites of the eggs alternately into the sugar, butter and almost, a very little at a time of each; having beaten the whole as hard as possible, put in a pan lined with paper and set it immediately in a moderate oven. You must not open the oven door or move it until it has been in the oven half an hour, and then you must be careful about having the door of the oven open for any length of time. It should take an hour and great care must be taken in baking it.
8/24/1881 p 2

Peal and core a dozen large apples, put them into a lined saucepan, with a small teacup of cold water. As they heat bruise them to a pulp, sweeten and add the grated rind of one lemon. When cold put the rind at the bottom of the pie dish and pour over it a custard made with one pint of milk, four eggs and two ounces of loaf sugar. Grate a little nutmeg over the top, place the dish in a modern oven and bake half an hour. This will make a quantity sufficient for six or seven persons.

One quart of milk, one-third of a pint of molasses, one even dessert spoonful of salt, one pint of corn meal, one pint of flour, four spoonfuls of baking powder sifted in the flour; mix all the ingredients thoroughly together and put in a buttered tin kettle or pail; cover closely and place it in a tin pail two-thirds full of boiling water; cover and boil steadily for three hours; replenish when needed with boiling water. To be eaten hot with butter.

Two cups of scalded milk, cooled to blood heat; one cup of yeast or equivalent of compressed yeast and mix with flour rather stiffer than fritters, let it rise, then add two cups of sugar and one cup of butter beaten to a cream; one teaspoon of soda, mix with flour full as stiff as bread; mould it well; let it rise, then cut up and lay in pans, and after is has stood for rising bake it. If liked, stir in before moulding a cupful of huckleberries or the same quantity of dried currants.

Pare and cut the egg plant in thin slices; let it stand for two or three hours in cold water, well salted, which removes a strong flavor and makes it more delicate; when thoroughly drained dip each slice into egg and cram, well beaten (two eggs, two tablespoons of cream), then in cracker crumbs. Have ready a large kettle of boiling lard, frying a few slices at a time; they need room, if you would have them delicate and crisp. Stewed tomato is very nice with egg plant.

Boil a dozen eggs quite hard. Put them on in cold water, and let them remain in for twelve minutes after the waters boil. This prevents them growing tough. Spread some bread with butter on the loaf, cut very thin. Slice the eggs in their rings. Lay them on the bread, with pepper and salt and a dash of mustard, if you like it. If you cut each slice across, so that each sandwich will be three-cornered, it will make it more convenient to hold and prettier.

Pickled tongue makes a good relish for a picnic dinner. Let the tongue be in salt and water for three days, then boil it in clear water, which should be changed once or twice. When cooked so that the outer covering will slip off easily, drain off the water, take off the skin, and pour cold vinegar over the tongue; add such spices to suit your taste. It will be pickled sufficiently after it has been in the vinegar a day and night. If you are in haste you may cut it in thin slices before pickling.
10/19/1881 p 3

Two cups of sugar, one cup of butter, half a cup of sweet milk, one teaspoon of soda, two teaspoons of extract of lemon; dip the cookies in sugar before baking.

One cup of flour, one of brown sugar, one pint of molasses, one cup of milk, one gill of brandy, eight eggs, a quarter pound butter. Beat very lightly; add baking powder. Serve with butter and sugar sauce.

Choose plums that are fully ripe. Scald them till the skins peel off, and take out the stones. Allow a pound and a half of sugar to a pound of fruit; let them lie in the sugar a few hours, then boil to a smooth mass.

Take two ounces of cottage cheese, four eggs, a piece of butter the size of an egg, the rind and juice of one lemon, one nutmeg, sugar to the taste; cream enough to make it about the consistency of light dough. Line your pieplates with puff paste, and fill with the above. No upper crust.

These are made of tender beefsteak cut in pieces and cooked with vegetables in the same way as fish in court bouillon, except that thyme is omitted in seasoning and a little lemon juice or half a teaspoonful of vinegar is added just before serving. Serve without toast.

Beat two eggs very light, whites and yolks together; sift into them a quart of flour, a teaspoonful of salt; add a teaspoonful each of butter and lard, and nearly a tumbler full of milk; work all thoroughly together; take a fourth of the dough at a time and roll out thin, cut in small rounds, and bake quickly to a light brown.

Rice muffins baked in gem pans are delicious for tea; take one cup of rice (steam it until tender), about a pint of sweet milk and three eggs, thicken with a tablespoon of flour, and bake until brown, or you may raise them with bread sponge; they are particularly good in this way, but of course it takes longer to prepare them.
11/2/1881 p 2


She was born November 1814 in Antwerp, Jefferson Co., NY and died 25 September 1848 at age 33y. 10 months, 22 days. She is buried in the Freeport City Cemetery, Stephenson Co., Illinois. For photo of her tombstone, see Findagrave.

Her father, Major John Howe, was a surveyor and soldier, born at Antwerp, NY 17 March 1780. His ancestors came from England before the Revolutionary War, and he served under General Jacob Brown in a New York regiment and fought in the battles of Lundy's Lane and Sackets Harbor. In the latter he was wounded, and upon his recovery he continued in the army until peace was declared. In 1827 he removed to Oswego County, NY, where he held various offices of trust. He was at one time U.S. Customs Officer at Sandy Creek, and also represented Jefferson County in the New York Legislature.
He married Catherine Evans of Jefferson County on 19 October 1813, by whom he had four children:

JANE AUGUSTA, who married LUTHER W. GUITEAU of Freeport, Illinois

In 1838 Maj. Howe removed with his three living children to Freeport, IL and there engaged in general merchandising with his son-in-law, Luther Wilson Guiteau, which was continued until 1850. In that year he removed to Port Ulao, in Ozaukee Co., Wisconsin, where he and his son, Capt. John Randolph Howe, owned a pier and wood lands in connection with the Chicago and Sheboygan line of lake steamers, one of which Capt. Howe was for many years the commander.

Maj. Howe was remarkable, where he was known, for his goodness of heart, kindness to the poor and distressed, and for the honesty and justice with which all his business operations were performed. He was noted for his indomitable will and fearless personality. He was a Master Mason and a Jackson Democrat, and all his life was a "teetotal" abstainer. He would never employ men who drank, and as a surveyor he would not supply his men, even in the severest winter weather, with the customary liquor rations, and on the sign of the tavern he once kept in Freeport in the early days he had painted in bold letters, "No Drunkard Need Apply." He was a successful business man, accumulated a considerable estate, and was universally respected where he lived. He died at Port Ulao, Wisconsin on 16 Feb. 1855 at the age of 69 and was buried in Racine, Wisconsin.

Source: Burlington Historical Society #47783702.

CHARLES JULIUS GUITEAU, son of Luther W. Guiteau and Jane Augusta Howe, was born 8 September 1841 in Freeport, Stephenson Co., Illinois. He deceased on 30 June 1882 at age 40 by hanging, in Washington, DC and his burial is in the National Museum of Health and Medicine, Washington, D.C. in the anatomical collection storage cabinets which are not open to the public.

He has been credited as being the assassin of President Garfield, having fired two bullets into the President, one of which lodged in the back and the other in his arm. Garfield's doctors have since been blamed for the President's death, for not cleaning their hands initially before probing for the bullet in his back which became an intestinal wound having traveled from the back into the intestines , which in turn caused fevers and infections to set in. Subsequent surgical procedures were not successful and President Garfield died on September 19, 1881, eleven weeks after the shooting.

Source: Watertown Re-Union Newspapers, published Watertown, NY, from June 1881 through September 1881. Edward Charles Spitzka, a leading alienist, testified as an expert witness at the trial of Guiteau and he stated that it was clear that "Guiteau is not only now insane, but that he was never anything else." While on the stand, Spitzka testified that he had "no doubt" that Guiteau was both insane and a "moral monstrosity". Spitzka's conclusion was that Guiteau had the "insane manner" he had so often observed in asylums, adding that Guiteau was a "morbid egotist" with a "tendency to misinterpret the real affairs of life". He thought the condition to be the result of a "congenital malformation of the brain".

Source: J. Guiteau

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