for the


from The Growth of a Century

by JOHN A. HADDOCK, 1895

These biographies and family sketches are copied exactly as found. Undoubtedly there will be minor variations found in later research.


ELIJAH HORR.- Few men have lived in Carthage and been more closely identified with its business interests for so many consecutive years as the subject of this sketch. He came to the village in 1831, when only 27 years of age, and all his subsequent life was wrought into its growth and prosperity. The progenitors of the family--the name until the last two generations was spelled "Hoar"--came from England to Massachusetts in the 17th century. The Massachusetts branch have always adhered to the original orthography, and as is well known, have been prominent in the history of the old Bay State and of the nation for many years, Hon. George F. Hoar being the senior Senator of the Commonwealth today, and one of the most eminent men in the councils of the Nation.

Elijah Horr's branch of the family came into Northern New York in the latter part of the last century, and settled in Denmark, Lewis county. Here Elijah was born November 24, 1804, and was reared like farmer's boys of the period, attending, for a brief time during the winter, a common school, and laboring the balance of the year upon the farm. He was a steady, ambitious boy, attaining his physical growth very early. He led his father's men in the hay and harvest field when he was 15 years of age, and as a consequence, before he was 18, his health became almost completely broken for the time, and he had entailed upon his constitution infirmities from which he ever afterward suffered. Not being sufficiently robust for a farmer, he attended, for several terms, Lowville Academy, securing by this change a better education than was usual to most of the young men of that section at that time. Upon his return from school he entered the store of Mr. Norton.

At the age of 23 years he married Miss Gertrude Vedder, who was descended, through the Vedders and Van Vlecks, from the old Knickerbocker stock of New York. Soon after, he moved to Carthage, then nothing but a hamlet upon the Long Falls of Black river. After a short time he opened a general store, and continued in the business of a merchant, at brief intervals, on account of impaired health, for more than 30 years. Subsequently, for some years, in company with Orlin Holcomb, he carried on a general banking business until his 70th year, when a stroke of partial paralysis closed his active business career. He lived for six years after this, attending to his private business until his death, December 27, 1880.

In early life Mr. Horr identified himself with the Methodist Episcopal Church. For more than 40 years he was an official member of the Carthage church, attending scrupulously its services and contributing largely of his means for its general expenses, and towards the building of two church edifices. He believed steadfastly in the doctrines and discipline of that church, but was wholly free from bigotry, and rejoiced in the prosperity of the churches of all names. He was a man of very positive convictions in both religious and political affairs, but was charitable towards the opinions of others. As a business man he was universally respected and honored. He was indefatigable in his devotion to his business interests, never allowing anything but the claims of his religious life to engross his time or claim his attention, giving himself almost no recreation, but finding his pleasures in his work. He was a man of unusual balance of faculties, his judgments seldom needing revision. During the more than 40 years of his active business life, he passed through three serious financial panics, with untarnished honor and unweakened credit. He never took any active part in politics, other than to do his simple duty as a citizen. From the organization of the Republican party, he was identified with its interests, and thoroughly believed in, and endeavored to promote its policies. The evening twilight of his long and useful life was calm and beautiful. He rested in the border-land, quietly and in hope, after the unremitting toils of a busy life. His last words, as his soul went out into the unknown, were: "Thy rod and Thy staff they comfort me." The family consisted of nine children, all living until the youngest was over 21 years of age, viz: John Wesley, who died March 31, 1875; Walter Ashley, of Great Bend; Hannah, wife of C. E. Francis, of Carthage; Sarah, widow of Rev. Spencer R. Fuller, who died September 16, 1870; Rev. Elijah, D.D., of Worcester, Mass.; Albert Vedder, who died July 26, 1882; Gertrude, wife of John T. Connell, of Grand Island, Neb.; Louise Stewart, who died March 10, 1872, and Charles Abner, who resides at Carthage.

JOHN WESLEY HORR. The subject of this sketch was the eldest son of Elijah and Gertrude Horr. He was born May 26, 1831, and was educated at the Carthage Academy. From very early life, in intervals of attendance at school, he clerked in his father's store. He was a natural salesman. From boyhood he manifested a love for adventure, which led him into many hair-breadth escapes, some of which left their scars upon him ever after. When about 21 years of age he went to Ohio, where, for about two years, he was employed as a clerk in the store of his cousin, A. V. Horr. Irresistibly moved by the spirit of adventure that always possessed him, he then went to California, where, after about a year and a half spent in the mines and in San Francisco, he embarked with 86 others in the ill-starred Nicaragua expedition, under Gen. Walker. The adventures and escapes he had, the sufferings that he endured while in Central America, would fill a volume that would be as strange as fiction. He, with many others, sick and wounded, was faithlessly deserted by the cruel and ungrateful Walker in Grenada, to be massacred by the Costa Rica forces, but they were protected by the United States government, and finally brought with the survivors of the expedition to New York, in the frigate Wabash. He was one of six of a company of 86 that left California, who returned. His family had received no tidings of him for over a year. He came to Carthage as one raised from the dead--a walking skeleton--weighing only 90 pounds, just one-half his weight when he left California. This was before the horrors of Libby and Andersonville, and no such looking per son had, perhaps, ever been seen outside of fever hospitals. Physicians came long distances to see him and professionally examine his case. Contrary to all expectations, he fully recovered his health, and upon the breaking out of the War of the Rebellion he raised a company of cavalry, of which he was made captain. The company was disbanded after nine months of service. Upon returning home, he went, after a few months, to St. Joseph, Mo., where he was engaged in mercantile pursuits until his death, March 31, 1870. In 1859 he married Miss Nancy M. Root, of Deer River, who for some years survived him.

He was a man of generous impulses, brave almost to rashness, with a natural love of adventure that sometimes outran his judgment, but few have been better loved by those who knew him. His grave is in the family lot, in the cemetery in Carthage.

WALTER ASHLEY HORR. was the second son, born October 26, 1833. He was educated at the district school and the Carthage Academy, and for several seasons taught in Wilna, LeRay and Carthage. He spent some time in 1854-5 in Chicago and Michigan, suffering then and subsequently from fever and ague, he returned to Carthage, in greatly impaired health. After the partial recovery of his health, he assisted his father for a time in his store; and later, for several years, he was associated with Noyes Tuttle in milling and in the sale of flour and feed, and was engaged in this business at the time of the breaking out of the war. He was inclined to enlist in the beginning of the conflict, for he was, from the first, alive to its serious and critical character, but was dissuaded, for a time, on account of the claims of his young family; and it was urged that as two brothers had already gone into the army, it was his duty to remain at home. But, finally, in the summer of 1862, while serving as a member of a war committee, appointed by Gov. Morgan for Jefferson and Lewis counties, for raising a new contingent of troops, he enlisted as a private in the 10th N. Y. Artillery, and shared the fortunes of that regiment, in which so many Carthage boys and those of contiguous towns had enlisted, until broken health compelled him to resign in the winter of 1864. He was elected lieutenant upon the organization of the company, and acted in that capacity during his period of service. No one ever doubted but that he enlisted purely from motives of patriotism. He had from boyhood taken a deep interest in the anti-slavery struggles, and in his deepest heart believed that this was God's battle, and that the future salvation and prosperity of the country depended upon its right settlement; clearly discerning the magnitude and issues of the conflict, he was ready to contribute his part to its solution. He has always been a man less controlled by impulse than by fixed principle and steady purpose. There is no part of his life that he looked back upon with so much satisfaction as his army experiences. They cost him more than most persons, for he had scarcely known a well day since he left the service. While he had never held political office, he was ever an active politician. He has been a conscientious Republican, almost since the organization of the party; gladly contributing his time and means to further its measures. It was characteristic of him to give his whole energies to whatever he believed to be right, in principle, and expedient in policy; he never believed in, or advocated half-way measures. He was married in 1857 to Miss Lovania Ware, of Champion. They had two children, Jennie G., who was married to Truman A. Thayer, and who died in 1872, and Flora M., who died in 1879. He has been, for some years, a resident of Great Bend, where he was a merchant and postmaster for many years. He died there suddenly February 6, 1895, much regretted. His widow survives him.

REV. ELIJAH HORR, D. D., was the third son and fifth child of the family. He was born April 20, 1841. In early life he was very frail, and for some years it was doubtful whether he would grow to manhood. He early evinced a desire for an education, and availed himself of every opportunity for reading and study. At the age of 15 he began to attend the Gouverneur Seminary. Here he fitted for an advanced standing in college, teaching winters from the time he was 16, and attending the fall and spring terms. Circumstances prevented his completion of the college course, upon which he had set his heart, and after some time spent in teaching at Evans Mills and West Carthage, he entered what is now the Theological Department of Boston University, from which he graduated in 1863. He at once entered upon the work of the ministry in the Methodist Episcopal Church, having successive pastorates in Ilion, Syracuse and Auburn. While in the latter city, at the instance of the Presbyterian pastors, Hamilton College conferred upon him the degree of M. A., in recognition of his scholarly attainments. The same degree was also conferred, a few years after, by Syracuse University, which was founded while Dr. Horr was pastor in that city, and in which he has always taken a great interest.

Until 1882 he was a member of the Central New York Conference, taking the most important appointments within its bounds, and serving for years as Conference Secretary, an office entailing great responsibilities and affording large influence. In the fall of 1882 he was called to Walnut Street Church, Chelsea, Mass., in the New England Conference. Here he at once took high rank, and was greatly in demand as a platform speaker and lecturer.

One of the elements of Dr. Horr's popularity in the various cities in which he has labored, has been his interest as a citizen, as well as a public teacher and clergyman, in all public questions. These he has discussed in the pulpit and on the platform freely and fearlessly. During his pastorate in Chelsea he was unanimously invited by the city government to give the oration at its memorial service for General Grant.

In 1886 the Maverick Congregational Church of Boston gave him an unanimous call to become its pastor, and he remained with them between seven and eight years, when he was called to Piedmont Church, Worchester, Mass., where he now (1894) resides. The Boston Herald, on the eve of his departure from that city, said: "Without the slightest sensationalism he discusses all the topics of the day, and subjects that alike interests old and young. His popularity is by no means confined to his own congregation, or even to Boston. He is possessed of considerable reputation as an after-dinner speaker, and delivered many addresses in the late conflict on the school question. He is broad-minded and has a fine command of language, and as an extemporaneous speaker he has few superiors in Boston. He is especially popular with young people, in whom he takes a great interest, and he has addressed from the platform members of the Young People' Society of Christian Endeavor in all parts of the State."

His denomination has shown their confidence in his judgment and business sagacity by placing him upon some of the most important of their boards of trust. He is a corporate member and upon the prudential committee of the American Board; is a member of the executive committee of the American Association; also of the Sunday School and Publishing Society, and a director of the American Congregational Association.

In 1864 he married Miss Bessie Winslow, daughter of Hon. John Winslow, of Watertown. N. Y. They have three children, viz: Dr. Albert Winslow, of Boston; Katharine Pease, wife of Frederick B. Lovejoy, of Boston, and John W., now a lad of 15 years.

ALBERT VEDDER HORR was the fourth son, born February 18, 1843. He was a sturdy, mischievous boy of an unusually happy disposition. In boyhood he was little inclined "to take account of stock" before engaging in any of the expeditions and escapades so often characteristic of enterprising boys in a country village. He was a recognized leader, though inclined, in his early days, to be somewhat reckless of consequences, still he was always fertile in resources, and if his thoughtless daring sometimes led his young companions into scrapes his steady bravery and persistence always helped to extricate them. He attained his growth very early, and with it seemed to have unusual maturity of judgment. He enlisted in his brother Wesley's company at the age of 17 and when the regiment was disbanded, after nine months of service, he was an orderly sergeant. He remained in Washington for several months in the service of the government, and then returned to Carthage, where he remained for part of a year, when he began to recruit a company for the 20th New York Cavalry. He was commissioned a second lieutenant, and when the regiment went into camp at Sackets Harbor was promoted to a first lieutenancy before it left the State. When the regiment first went to the front it was employed in several long cavalry raids, which tested the quality, pluck and endurance of the men and hardened them for the service that was to follow. The rare executive ability of Captain Horr was soon recognized, and during much of the time that he was connected with the 20th Regiment, he was on detached service, acting as assistant provost marshal of Eastern Virginia, with headquarters at Great Bridge, and as aide-de-camp on the staff of different generals in the Army of the James. In this capacity he was among the first white men of our army who entered Richmond, being on the staff of General Kautz, who was in command of the colored troops on that eventful morning. On the next day he was one of the escort of President Lincoln on his visit to the captured city, but a few days before his assassination. He remained in the army until the close of the war. Soon after, he removed to St. Joseph, Mo., where for ten years he engaged in mercantile pursuits, in company with his brother. In 1876 he returned to Carthage and engaged in business until his death, July 26, 1882. Capt. Horr was twice married--in 1863 to Miss Emma D. VanNess, of Carthage, who died in 1864, and in 1872 to Miss Imo Cheney, of Mechanicsburg, Ohio, who survived him a few years, dying July 6, 1891. An only son, Elijah, survives the family. This young man is now away, a student in school.

Albert had the happy faculty of making strong friends and holding them. He was a man of unusual energy of character and executive ability. He readily won the respect and easily held the confidence of associates, whether in business or army life. Quick of perception and fertile in resources, he was fitted to lead and command men by the confidence with which he inspired them. The old soldiers who knew him in camp and field loved and honored him. He is buried in the Carthage cemetery in sight of the home of his childhood.

CHARLES ABNER HORR, the youngest son and child, was born just outside of the limits of Carthage, upon a farm, which his father owned for some years, and at this time, on account of impaired health, was occupying, October 19, 1850. He attended school in Carthage and pursued a business course in a commercial college in Syracuse, N. Y. After clerking for some years in his father's store, he went to St. Joseph, Mo., engaging in business with his brothers, Wesley and Albert. In 1874 he returned to his native place, formed a partnership with his brother Albert. He is a man of amiable characteristics, popular with his fellow-citizens, a prominent member of the Methodist church and of several local organizations.

In 1871 he was married to Miss Jennie A. VanPelt, of Carthage. They have three children, Louisa Stewart, Wilma Gertrude and Charles Albert.

WILLIAM ALLEN PECK was the son of Allen and Ann (Gilbert) Peck, who came from Connecticut quite early in the settlement of Carthage. William was educated in the common schools of Carthage, completing his scholastic education at Cazenovia, N. Y. After receiving his education he entered the store of Elijah Horr, and there he received a part of his mercantile education, completing it at Mobile, Ala. When about 25 years of age he commenced business as a merchant with the late Hon. D. C. West, and the firm of West & Peck continued until Mr. West removed to Lowville. Mr. Peck then continued in trade on his own responsibility until 1861, when he retired from active business. He sold his goods to Horace Hooker. In 1850 he married Susanna C. Budd, and they reared two children, William A. and Allen G., the latter being the popular cashier of the First National Bank of Carthage.

Few men passed through a long mercantile career in their native town and left behind them a memory so sweet and lasting as William A. Peck. He was in all respects a companionable man--one who invited friendship by being always friendly. He was perhaps more universally mourned than anyone who ever lived in Carthage, for he grew up with the town and knew all its people. He died in his 40th year, a young man.

THE BUDD FAMIILY. JOSEPH C. BUDD, one of the celebrated firm of Budd & Bones, the iron masters, who ran the blast furnace at Carthage for many years, was a resident of Pennsylvania, near Philadelphia, where the family is well remembered. His first employment in Carthage was as a clerk in the land office of Mr. LeRay. While there employed his attention was attracted by the fine opportunities then presented for manufacturing charcoal iron, which then commanded a high price, but is now an almost unknown factor upon the market. In 1820 he married Susanna Coffeen, and about that time, in company with his brother-in-law, William Bones, he began to manufacture iron, thus continuing for a number of years. Joseph Budd built the series of five bridges connecting the islands with the main land, long since destroyed.

Mr. Budd had three brothers: Dr. Benj. S., Samuel A. and Paul. His own family were Miriam, who married Abner Gilbert (deceased); Susanna C., wife of William A Peck; John C., who died in Brooklyn about 1888; Joseph P., who is now living in the State of Washington; Thomas R., now living in Carthage; Caroline P., who died in 1863, and Rebecca L., who died in June, 1894.

In person, Joseph C. Budd was of commanding height, erect and dignified. He had the bearing of a gentleman of the old school, courteous, affable, but not inviting familiarity. He enjoyed the confidence of the people, having once been a Representative in the Legislature. He died in Carthage in 1868. His wife died in 1880, respected by all.

Miriam S., daughter of Joseph Budd, who married Abner H. Gilbert, was a life-long resident of Carthage. They had three children. Miss Susanna is the last representative of her father's family in Carthage. Wm. A., her brother, died in Gouverneur in 1891, aged 31 years. Mrs. Miriam Gilbert died April 23, 1894, aged 70 years, surviving her husband over 20 years.

One of the aged persons of the county was Samuel A. Budd, who lived to be over 90 years of age. He was a well-known character in Carthage for many years, and was a soldier of the War of 1812. Another aged person was Mrs. Lavinia Budd, wife of Samuel A Budd, long a resident of Carthage, where she died at an advanced age. They were both a very long-lived and industrious family, as their record shows, and they are well remembered in Carthage.

MARCUS P. MASON One of the most intelligent, progressive and amiable citizens of Carthage, was born in Amsterdam, Montgomery county, in 1835. His father was a manufacturer, who came into New York from Massachusetts early in the twenties. Marcus P., therefore, became possessed of mechanical ideas by natural inheritance, which may explain his inclination toward productive industry. He received a fair primary education in the common schools of his neighborhood, supplemented by a year and a half in the best schools of Battle Creek, Mich., where he made his home with an uncle, a manufacturer of that city. Returning East, he next attended the New York Conference Seminary for Young Men, at Charlottsville, N. Y. This completed his scholastic education.

His devotion to mechanical pursuits had its first practical application in his father's manufactory. A young friend of his had been up in the Black River country, and was somewhat enthusiastic in his account of the desirable advantages of Carthage as a business centre. This induced young Mason to venture into this Northern section, his capital being $200 in cold cash, and with it he began the manufacture of broom handles on a small scale, afterwards increasing the business. His father then became a partner, under the firm name of H. Mason & Son, his father still residing at Amsterdam, N. Y. They rented the saw-mill of Samuel Davis and Samuel Myers, and added the manufacture of wood pumps with iron fixtures. They kept peddlers on the road selling pumps in the counties of Albany, Montgomery and Fulton, Mr. Mason, Sr., giving that portion of the business his personal attention. After running the pump business several years, the firm sold that branch, and M. P. Mason bought his father's interest. In addition to his Carthage business, he bought a mill at Deer River, and carried on the manufacture of broom-handles, window-shade rollers and slats. He then converted his Carthage mill into a manufactory of map-rollers and mountings for mounting maps, and for 25 years has made all that class of goods consumed in the United States. He soon afterward removed his works to West Carthage, purchasing the plant and water-rights of the Lathrop property. Here he largely increased his business, adding the manufacture of feather-duster handles, which he still continues, and makes the larger portion of such goods used in this country.

In 1873 he built a knitting-mill, and began the manufacture of knit underwear, in addition to his other branches of business. After the failure of Jay Cook and the attendant panic, the underwear business became somewhat depressed, and he converted his underwear mill into a hosiery manufactory, turning out about 150 dozen per day of gentlemen's merino and wool hosiery. Mr. Mason attended to his own sales, visiting nearly all the large cities of the country, and coming in direct contact with the jobbing trade. This business he continued for many years, giving employment to about 100 hands. A few years ago he sold his knitting-mill machinery and business to a concern at Pullman, Illinois, and it was transferred to that point.

About 1882 he turned his attention to investments in real estate, in the leading cities of the West and Northwest, including Kansas City, Omaha, Minneapolis, Duluth and Chicago. His plan was to purchase property, plot and grade it, putting through streets, and sometimes building upon it. In most of these ventures he has been remarkably successful, and he is still owner of landed property in several of the largest cities of the West, his judgment upon land values being frequently solicited by other dealers in real estate.

Mr. Mason is eminently democratic in his manner and easily approached. He is popular as a citizen, having represented the town of Champion on the Board of Supervisors, though his general plan has been to decline political honors. He comes of a long-lived family, his mother, who was Miss Abigail Adams Wheelock, died at the residence of her son, in West Carthage, in 1893, in her 85th year, and his father, Horace Mason, died in Amsterdam, aged 80 years.

Mr. Mason was married to Miss Hattie M. Angel, daughter of Edwin Angel, of Carthage. Three children have been born to them, two of whom are deceased, and one, a beautiful boy, Clinton, gives great promise of being a comfort to his parents.

Mr. Mason has been a successful man, but he has earned all he has of this world's goods. In West Carthage stands his elegant mansion, literally filled with unique and elegant furniture, beautiful statuary and many works of art which have been selected with wise discrimination in the art centres of Europe, and it is doubted whether another dwelling in Northern New York can show more elegant fittings or greater taste in their selection.

The Mason family in America descended from two brothers, who came from England early in the 16th century. One settled in Virginia, and the other in Massachusetts. At the burning of Medfield, Mass., in the King Philip Indian War, but one Mason child was saved from that massacre, and from him have sprung all the Masons in this country. Lowell Mason, the distinguished musician, is one of these descendants.

ERWIN ANDREW HAMMOND was born in Carthage in 1825. He was the son of John D, and Hellanah (Settle) Hammond. His father, John D., was a contemporary of Brodhead, and his assistant. Brodhead and Hammond ran the first line of survey through the Northern wilderness in 1798, and located the base line, from which all subsequent surveys have been predicated. They afterward, near 1816, completed and verified their work.

John D. Hammond died in 1836, aged 56 years, leaving his widow with 12 children. Erwin A. was then 11 years old. He was an ambitious boy, anxious to help his widowed mother. He was the first one to carry the mail from Carthage over the direct route to Watertown, via Great Bend and Felts Mills. This journey he performed three times each week, covering both ways the same day, and once a week he carried the mail from Carthage to Evans Mills, via Great Bend, Felts Mills and LeRaysville. He began to learn the hatter's trade in Carthage with Isaac Cutler, completing his apprenticeship in Utica. Returning to Carthage, he commenced business for himself in 1846, and remained four years. He then moved to Utica and established himself in the hat, cap and fur trade, which business he conducted on Genesse street until 1882. Since then Mr. Hammond has retired from active business. He is one of the oldest Odd Fellows in Northern New York, being a charter member of Tohopeka Lodge of Carthage, instituted in 1848. He is also one of the oldest Masons and Knights Templar in this part of the country, and is a member of the Masonic Veteran's Association of Central New York.

He married Miss Elizabeth E. Hill, of Martinsburg, in 1848, and they have reared five children: Julia H., wife of Richard W. Sherman, of Utica; Eugene M., now deceased; Alice Maria, who died at the age of 16 years; Cornelia E. and Mary Louise, who resides at home. Mrs. Hammond died in 1893, much lamented; to her own family her loss was irreparable. Since the death of his sister, Mrs. Marcus Bickford, September 13, 1894, Mr. E. A. Hammond is the oldest surviving member of the family, and the only one, excepting Teranus P., the youngest of the family, who resides in Carthage.

Mrs. Hellanah Hammond, widow of John D., died March 22, 1864, aged 73. She was highly respected, a consistent member of the Baptist Church, and a model mother. The large family of children all reached maturity and are well known in Carthage and vicinity. Those not already mentioned are Catharine A., the eldest of the family; Theodore S., Junius D., Charles B., William Morris, Caroline M. (Mrs. Henry Empey), John W., Miriam M. (Mrs. Alva Wilson), Helen (Mrs. F. G. Connell). These nine are all deceased.

Mr. E. A. Hammond well remembers when in his earliest boyhood, there were still remaining some portions of the five bridges, beginning at Tannery Island, that spanned the river by individual structures from one island to another. Some of the stringers of these bridges were remaining as late as 1838. He described the prevalence in Carthage of the "morus multicaulis" or silk-worm fever, which attacked so many communities in those early days. The plan was to plant the morus multicaulis tree, the leaves of which would be food for the silk-worm, purchase the worms, and at once enter upon the manufacture of silk. A family named Leonard came to Carthage from Lowville, and made preparations for manufacturing silk upon an extensive scale. The proposed industry was a taking business, because it would give employment to women and children at home. The Leonards entered heartily into this project, but met with many discouragements. The appliances then in use for winding the delicate cocoons, were crude and unsatisfactory, and that made much waste. This, with many other drawbacks, resulted in the abandonment of the business. The Leonards finally lost all they had invested, and gradually they removed from the town, not one of their descendants now residing there.

The old "cocoonery" was a long building which stood next to the garden of Martin Rugg, on Mechanic street, and is now moved back a few feet and used for a barn.

Had we space, Mr. Hammond's many other pleasant reminiscences might be related, but, as with many others, we are obliged to limit the space, for it would be simply impossible to insert as many personal sketches in each town as we would desire.


In November, 1892, Julius Spiro, Alexander Wendler and Wm. H. Munro purchased of the Empire Steam Pump Company their plant, situated on West End avenue, in Carthage. Through the enterprise of these gentlemen the machine shop was enlarged, a large iron foundry added, and various other improvements made. The object of this enterprise was the manufacture of machinery for pulp and paper mills. Their business was prosperous from the start, in spite of the hard times all over the country.

During the years 1892-93 the large sulphite pulp mill at Pyrites, N. Y., known as the High FaIls Sulphite Pulp and Mining Company, was designed and built under the supervision of this concern. Through Mr. Wendler's influence this Sulphite Company was formed, with a capital of $200,000. It is the only sulphite mill in the United States which uses pyrites ore in the place of sulphur in the manufacture of the liquor for digesting the wood.

In 1893 Mr. Wendler purchased the interests of Messrs. Munro and Spiro and the business was continued under the name of Wendler & Co. Under this management the business continued to prosper, and soon assummed such proportions that it was decided to enlarge the works a second time, and Wendler & Co. concluded to form a stock company. The new company filed their articles of incorporation under the name of. "Wendler Machine Company," and September, 1894, received their charter. At a meeting of the stockholders, Messrs. A. Wendler, C. H. Remington, J. G. Jones, A. Drewson and Curt Nicolai were elected directors. Since the organization of this company, the capacity of the machine shop has been doubled, and a commodious brass and bronze foundry added. These buildings were completed about January 1, 1895, and equipped throughout with the most modern improvements in the way of machinery, electric light, steam heating, etc., so that to-day the company has one of the most complete plants for the manufacture of their special line of machinery in Northern New York. In fact this company is the only concern in the United States manufacturing as a specialty sulphite mill machinery. It controls many valuable patents for machinery used in sulphite paper mills, and has built up a reputation in this line all over the country.

A. Wendler, the president and manager of the concern, was born in Zschopan, Germany, in 1863. His father, Carl Wendler, is interested in pulp and paper mills at that place, and gave him the best education. After graduating at the Royal College at Chemnitz he studied in Hanover and Berlin, and received his degree as chemical engineer. At the age of 25, after learning his trade in one of the largest paper mills in Germany, he started on a trip through different countries in Europe and at last came to America, where he worked in some of the best paper mills and machine shops. After three years of hard work he returned to Europe on a visit, and on his return went into partnership with Mr. Spiro, and opened an office as engineers for pulp and paper mills, introducing his patents, together with the latest machinery invented for the pulp industry. One year later the firm of Munro, Spiro & Wendler was organized in order to manufacture their own machinery, which firm was succeeded by Wendler & Company, and finally the Wendler Machine Company was organized, and continue the business, although this enterprising concern has met with some embarrassment, its future is now assured. Its loss to Carthage would be deplored.

CARLOS L. FREDERICK, the oldest merchant in Carthage, N, Y., was born in Perry, Ohio, July 19, 1829. His opportunities for education were very limited, but he had born in him that sincere regard for learning, which makes its possessor pay the price for its acquisition, thankfully devoting every spare moment of his time to that coveted end. Under favorable environment he developed into the hardy, resolute youth. The father having died when he was but one and a half years old, the family removed to Chittenango, Madison county. In 1844 he entered a drug store at Auburn, N. Y., as clerk, and thence forward his life has been devoted to the honorable business he chose a that early age. Remaining at Auburn three years, he removed to Syracuse in 1847, just as he was emerging toward legal manhood, casting there his first vote in favor of making that important village a city, as well as his political vote for Lewis Cass for president. In February, 1850, he married Miss Sophia Paddock, of Mentz, Cayuga county, N. Y.

In May, 1850, he opened a store in Carthage, receiving his goods via Oswego and Sackets Harbor. His coming was the means of introducing many improvements among the merchants of that town, who had been content to use the old-fashioned oil lamps for lighting their stores; but Mr. Frederick brought out the article known commercially as "camphene," which gave a brilliant, clear light, and the oil lamps in public soon fell into "innocuous desuetude." This is but one illustration of his way of introducing many improvements.

His seven years of service as a pharmaceutist gave great confidence to the public in his business, and his reputation in that respect is not confined to this section. Being always progressive, and slightly aggressive, Mr. Frederick has been independent in every thing. He has always been active in every improvement of Carthage, the home of his youth and his later years. He has probably, first and last, had more young men who have became successful pharmacists under his tutelage than any other merchant in Jefferson county. They are scattered at several places over the State, and are known as well grounded in their business.

The persistency of Mr. Frederick was well demonstrated in his contest with the Guardian Insurance Company, whose merited inglorious end was brought about by the search-light of investigation which Mr. Frederick's case brought to bear upon that organization after it had attempted to declare as "lapsed" a policy of $2.000, which was derelict, but only technically, as the company had purposely dropped the usual notice for renewal. The outrage thus attempted, and the publicity given to the case through Mr. Frederick's efforts, before the Legislature for four long years of persistent effort, at last forced the enactment of the now well-known law which requires 30 days' notice to be given of the day of falling due of any premium, no matter whether such notice is waived or not by the terms of the policy, or by its fine-type conditions, so seldom read.

Mr. Frederick's habit of keeping well up with the march of public progress, and indeed a little ahead of the procession, is shown in the marked improvement of his storefront--building it anew with plate-glass windows, leaving it one of the finest drug and prescription stores in the northern part of the State. Here he manufactures the medicines with which his name has been long identified, among which is the noted Lungwort Syrup, in use in nearly every household in the country.

Nor has he devoted all his powers to the accumulation of property, though in that he has been more than moderately successful. He was in his early youth a leader in all the movements relating to the advancement of the common-school interests of Carthage. In company with able contemporaries, he is one of those who can point to the fine High School building, finished in 1887, now a prominent object in Carthage, as an out-growth of his efforts in obtaining its present site, for he was a trustee under the old law, when, through his efforts and his co-trustees, the change was made to the Union Free School system. In that effort his labors are appreciated, and will be remembered long after he has joined the great majority.

Mr. Frederick has been in business many years--so long that his daily business routine is now his life. He is noted in being one of the best business advertisers in the country, and believes strongly in printer's ink. His style of advertising is very unique and original. He means to wear out, not rust out, although greatly afflicted by present poor health and inability to get about with celerity. He has ever taken an active interest in politics, and until 1856 was a life-long Democrat, when be broke away from the unpatriotic traditions of that once powerful party, and voted for Fremont, since which time he has acted with the Republicans. He has held several town offices, and has peremptorily declined to have his name presented for positions of larger responsibility. He may be classed as an earnest partizan who, while not desiring office, would follow no party, "right or wrong," and the influence of such men is always powerful.

Take him all in all, Mr. Frederick is an unique and interesting character-- a man of positive ideas, of a growth that has made the town a synonym for energy, for real pluck and for independence.

He owns and enjoys three beautiful islands in the St. Lawrence river, and owns Oakside Park, on Wellsley Island, as well as quite an interest in Round Island Park. He has a fine cottage on Frederick Island, where he and his family have spent their vacation for many years. He was the pioneer and the first cottager in all that section now dotted with summer residences, where is now Thousand Island Park and its surroundings. He was aggressive, and a leader in this as in other matters of public interest. We extract the following from the Carthage Republican, of September 5, 1894: Golden anniversaries are rare, in any department of life, but especially so in a business field, with its shifting, changing fortunes. Our successful and skillful druggist, Mr. C. L. Frederick, has attained the proud distinction of having served 50 consecutive years in this important and intricate art. While he has seen many business houses rise and fall since 1844, he has gone steadily, surely onward, until he has won a competence, and best of all, a character for unswerving integrity, golden, like the mortar which he uses, secundem artem. Still hale and hearty, with brain keen and alert, the Republican extends hearty greetings, and hopes that for many years to come it may be our pleasure to give precedence among the list of veteran business men, to the name of C. L. Frederick.

PATRICK SOMERVILLE STEWART, a native of Edinburgh, Scotland, was born in 1790. When 14 years of age he shipped before the mast as a common sailor, and came to America. In 1815 he was so fortunate as to secure employment in the distinguished LeRay family, for that meant advancement from one position to another, as was the custom of that nobleman in dealing with all his employes. Young Stewart's natural sagacity, good judgment and sterling qualities were such that he gained the entire confidence of his employer, and in 1835 he had full power as Mr. LeRay's attorney and the care of his large estate. Mr. Stewart has had eight children. In February 1876, his beloved wife died, aged 86. He was a Methodist in his religious affiliations, and a generous contributor to that organization.

In politics he was first a Whig, then a Republican. He was a peculiar character; possessed of an indomitable will, independent, positive, energetic in the maintenance of his principles, he was yet a man of much tenderness, and would sacrifice himself to serve a friend. He died in November, 1874, aged 84 years, leaving a reputation in no wise tainted by anything unjust.

John Stewart became a resident of Carthage about the same time as his brother Patrick, and for many years lived an exemplary Christian life. His widow and sister Ellen live at an advanced age, with Mrs. Stewart's daughter Sarah, (Mrs. B. Vroman, of Champion). These two ladies, possessing peculiarly happy dispositions, are of the kind that never grow old, looking forward to the reward of the faithful.

Patrick Somerville Stewart was in many ways remarkable. The writer met him as a clerk when he was supervisor from Wilna. The town never had a more faithful officer, nor one who took a greater delight in doing a duty to the best of his ability.

HON. ALLEN E. KILBY, the subject of this sketch, was born in Henderson, Jefferson county, New York, August 13, 1842. His father, George Kilby, was a native of Connecticut, and his mother of New York State. Both were noted for their strength of character and kindly qualities of sympathy and good will. The subject of this sketch early manifested a desire for books, and soon formed the resolution to make his way through college. This was not easy where so much money was required, and the family wealth was small. The proceeds of the home farm were needed to meet the demands of the family, and so young Kilby made up his mind to pay his own way by teaching school. He went from the district school at Henderson to Union Academy, Belleville, N. Y., from which he graduated with high honors in 1866. He taught school winters to earn money to pay his expenses, and for a portion of the time, "boarded himself "--a phrase well known to many a poor student working his own way through school at this famous academy. From Union Academy he entered St. Lawrence University, Canton, New York, and graduated therefrom in 1869, with a well won record for scholarship of the highest excellence. There, as at Union Academy, he had to rely on his own personal exertions for earning money to pay his college expenses; and his vacations were given always to hard work. The writer has known him to reach home from college on Saturday evening and go to work on the farm Monday morning--working through the summer without a single day's vacation, in order that the modest sum needed for the following college term might be provided. Entering the St. Lawrence University Law School in 1869, he graduated in the following year. While in college he was appointed tutor in history, mathematics and Latin, and remained a year after graduating as instructor in mathematics. He was then chosen to the chair of pure mathematics in the University, but resigned the position to engage the practice of the law. He was married to Miss Alice A. Johnson, daughter of Lynda and Fales Johnson, of Henderson, in 1871, and settled in Carthage the same year for the practice of his profession. Two children blessed this happy union, Ralph Lawrence, born July 5, 1880, and Bertha Alice, born August 4, 1883. From the first, Mr. Kilby made his mark as a close student, an excellent legal adviser, and a man of high character. Such qualities won for him the early confidence of the people, and age and experience brought him an increasing volume of legal business in his early professional career. In 1884 he was elected Member of Assembly from the first district of Jefferson county by the largest majority ever given in that district, and re-elected in November, 1885. He took a high position in the Legislature as a painstaking member, and one of the keenest students of all measures presented in the Assembly. Nothing escaped his laborious and faithful examination of bills laid before that body, and while he modestly refrained from taking part in debates to any great extent, he was recognized as a leading and safe authority on all matters coming before the Legislature. He served on the committees on judiciary, banks, public education, and on two-thirds and three-fifths bills, with great credit and acceptance. During his two years' service in the Assembly he refused all passes from railroads and always paid his full fare wherever he went. His view was that no public legislator should accept favors from railway corporations, whose interests might be antagonistic to the rights and best interests of the people. In 1891 his name was prominently mentioned as candidate for county judge, and the strong endorsement he received was gratifying proof of the esteem in which he was held in his native county.

Mr. Kilby, at this writing, is in his fifty-first year, and presents an all-round character for legal attainments and business ability seldom surpassed by one of his age in country life, and who has had to make his own way unaided by wealth and without the assistance of powerful friendly influence. He is a trustee of St. Lawrence University and vice-president of the First National Bank of Carthage, N. Y. Upright and downright in character, possessing a rare equipment of general and legal learning, untiring in the discharge of every duty to his clients and to everyday life, Allen E. Kilby presents an object lesson of a self-made man--"four square to all the winds that blow "--and worthy of the fullest respect and confidence of his fellow-citizens. Mature in judgment, inflexible in his opinions, stainless in his personal honor, and brave and true in his friendship--a loving and tender father, a faithful and affectionate husband--the subject of this brief sketch adds dignity to his profession and honor to the citizenship of his native country. A. D. S.

JAMES PERRY HODGKINS, who died in his 78th year, on the 18th of November, 18--, was the oldest resident of Carthage, having resided there continuously since 1819, with the exception of a short absence. He was born in Kingsbury, Washington county, N. Y. He left there at the age of 16, coming to Carthage with his uncle, John Hodgkins, who built a foundry in what is now West Carthage, near the site of Coburn's Mill. Under his uncle's instruction he became a worker in iron, in almost every department of which he exhibited great skill and enterprise, until it became a common remark that he could make anything that could be produced from iron. His whole active life was spent in business connected with the iron industry and with public works--he having been a contractor on the Black River Canal and the Utica & Black River Railroad, the latter of which he was one of the earliest promoters. The piers of the railroad bridge which span the river at Carthage, were built by him in the year 1852; and although the superstructure was not completed until 18 years later, the work was found to have been so well done and they were found in such a good state of preservation that nothing was required to render it a safe foundation. Mr. Hodgkins was a cousin of Alvin H. Perry, who won the renowned victory on Lake Erie over the British fleet, and in his youth enjoyed the privileges of an intercourse with that hero, which no doubt had the effect of turning his attention to political and public affairs, in which he felt an uncommon interest. A firm believer in the principles of the Democratic party, not only in the days of its prosperity and glory, but in the dark days of its adversity, he adhered to its fortunes with undeviating affection and confidence. He never could consent to accept any office outside of the town in which he resided. As a neighbor and friend he was universally esteemed; genial and sociable, he was a great favorite with all classes. Possessing an exceedingly retentive memory, his mind was stored with so much of the early history of this part of the State, that he was always relied upon for information of that character. He married Miss Julia A. Johnson, who survives him, residing with her daughter, Mrs. G. B. Farrington, in Brooklyn, N. Y.

Mr. Hodgkins is well remembered by the author of this History, for he was kind to us when a poor boy learning a trade.

CAPT. H. J. WELCH is a native of Chenango county, N. Y., and was born in the village of Norwich, July 17, 1834. His parents were born in Stonington, Conn., and at an early day migrated to Norwich, where they carved out of the wilderness a home on the banks of the Canusawacta Creek, from which source have sprung a numerous progeny, the greater part of whom are settled in the towns of Oxford, Greene, Bainbridge and Afton. The Captain was educated in the academies of Homer and Oxford. He read law with Col. John Wait, of Norwich, and was admitted to the bar in Binghamton in 1861. In the fall of 1862 he removed to Carthage, and for a short time practiced law with Charles T. Hammond; subsequently he opened an office by himself and for several years occupied rooms with the Hon. Marcus Bickford. In August, 1864, permit was given by the State to raise a regiment for the War of the Rebellion. Under this permit a regiment was raised, known as the 186th N. Y. Volunteer Infantry, in which the subject of this sketch was captain of a company.

After the war the Captain came back to his adopted village, where he has since resided, and practiced his profession. He organized the Carthage Fire Department; was elected four times president, and as an executive officer made the most efficient one it ever had. He straightened the street grade and the sidewalks, built the first stone cross-walks, caused the fences to be removed and the parking system to be carried out, the streets to be lighted and an equality of taxation established. He is one of the best campaign orators in the State; has been and is an active G. A. R. man, and in 1888 was commander of E. B. Steele Post, No. 269. He is a lawyer, well grounded in elementary principles, possessing those rare qualifications which make one of the best trial lawyers in Northern New York.

The Captain, besides his legal skill and literary attainments, is the inventor of 21 patents, among which is the Pneumatic Horse Shoe and the Glass Tube and Changeable Center Fish Bait. He was married in 1864 to Zeolade, daughter of Orson and Sophia Warren. His home is a delightful one, in the very heart of the town.

JOSEPH PARKER BROWNELL long a citizen of Carthage, and well known as a very reliable surveyor (and possessing a most accurate knowledge of the original surveys of all this section), was born in Duanesburg, Schenectady county, N. Y., January 9, 1827. He was the son of Cornelius and Mary (Rulison) Brownell. He came to Carthage in 1849, and for a time taught school, becoming finally an assistant to his uncle, Nelson Rulison, for many years the surveyor for the LeRay land office. About 30 years ago Mr. Brownell became the sole surveyor for the Carthage office, and at his death he was the best known expert upon land questions in the counties of Jefferson, Lewis and Southern St. Lawrence. In his line of special work he made many friends and always kept them, a rare thing for anyone to do. Mr. Brownell filled many places of trust and responsibility, all of which he conscientiously discharged. He had been a supervisor in Lewis county, a justice of the peace in Croghan for 18 years and held the same office in the village of Carthage; was also assessor for many years, besides holding other offices. In 1856 he was married to Miss Parthena S., daughter of Mr. Osmyn Caswell, one of the pioneers of the town of Theresa, and a justice of the peace there for several years. They have reared four children, one daughter and three sons. The daughter, a teacher of much promise, preceded him to the better land some seven years ago. Hiram M. is a farmer. James Parker is a civil engineer, a graduate from Cornell University. Charles is foreman of the Carthage Tribune. The last two named reside in Carthage.

Mr. Brownell died in Carthage on Christmas day, 1894. With him was forever lost much that was of interest relating to the early surveys. He was a thinker and a student. He had always a ready answer to any question relating to his profession. The author of this History had occasion once to ask him the exact measure of the water-fall in the Black river at Carthage, as well as the width of the river at the point where the public bridge crosses. He gave me the figures without reference to any book. He was a methodical and exact man, the result of long training in his profession, a matter of the utmost consequence in a surveyor. He was a superior draughtsman, plotting with exactness and ease. Taking him all in all, he was a man whose loss comes near to being a public one, for the knowledge he largely possessed was of such a nature that it was of interest to all. His last sickness was a gradual fading out of "life's fitful fever." The writer was with him and his devoted wife at Bonaparte lake last summer, and anticipated his speedy restoration to health, a hope that has not had fulfillment. But his end was peace, for death had no terrors for him.

The father of Mrs. Brownell, Osmyn Caswell, Esq., was born in Connecticut in 1796, and came of old Puritan stock. Three of his mother's brothers were soldiers in the Revolutionary army, and fought for independence at Bunker Hill. Esquire Caswell was one of the writer's earliest friends, a truly honest, conscientious man. He was the first justice of the peace in that part of the town of Theresa where he resided. He was universally respected. He died in the town of Wilna in 1881. Mr. Brownell's esteemed wife is left to mourn for her husband. They were indeed, an exceptionally happy and industrious family. J.A.H.

SIMEON FULTON for many years a well-known and respected citizen of the town of Wilna, was born in Vermont in 1809. He was the eldest son of Caleb Fulton, who was born in 1777 in Coleraine, Mass., and came to Wilna from Vermont in 1810, and built a log house on the farm where Mrs. Angelica Fulton (the wife of Elisha, Caleb's son) now resides. The privations incident to settlement in a new country afforded but little opportunity to acquire an education, but Simeon fitted himself for a life of usefulness, and soon became a referee for his neighbors and friends, who frequently sought his advice, and it was always considered reliable. In 1833 he was married to Larissa M., daughter of John and Susanna Smith. She came with her parents from New Jersey to the town of Wilna when but one year old, and the country a dense wilderness. Being childless they generously adopted children, who became as dear to them as their own. They took Julia A. when a child, and she, with her husband (Myron Lewis, Jr., of Wilna) and their three children, have been a comfort to Mr. and Mrs. Fulton in their declining years. These grandchildren seemed to be the special object of Mr. Fulton's love and care after the demise of his beloved wife, which occurred in Wilna, March 29, 1890, at the age of 73 years. Thus was severed the sacred ties of over half a century's duration. Mrs. Fulton possessed many virtues which inspired love and commanded respect from all who formed her acquaintance. Simeon Fulton was a man of many amiable and desirable qualities. Strictly honest in his dealings with his fellow men, he was ever ready to lend a helping hand to the needy. He possesses untiring diligence and patience, which enabled him to accumulate a handsome property. He was a devoted husband and generous protector to his foster children, to whom he was very much attached. His grandchildren cannot say too much in his praise. But Mr. Fulton's superior ability was recognized outside of the immediate neighborhood where his life was spent. He represented the town of Wilna as supervisor in 1847-48-49. He was notary public and school commissioner many years, and held many minor offices in the town. He was captain in the State militia. In 1891 he visited his birthplace in Vermont, accompanied by his grandson, E. Fulton Lewis.

An Universalist in belief, he lived as if in accord with the teachings of the Golden Rule. He died May 6, 1894, aged 85 years. "Truly a good man has fallen," was the expression of all who learned of the demise of Simeon Fulton. He was one more of those strong and honorable men who settled in the Black River country at an early day, and lived lives which justify us in calling them exceptional in all the qualities which make up true manhood. Principle was his guide, the light of reason his inspiration to duty. There were some like Mr. Fulton, but he had no superior.

THE STRICKLANDS were a distinguished family among those Friends who came into Philadelphia, Jefferson county, early in the century, probably among the very first permanent settlers of that town. They were from the vicinity of Philadelphia. Pa., where they had long been an important family, and where their descendants still maintain the ability demonstrated by their, ancestry. We give the biography of this entire family in Jefferson county, upon the next page. Miles and Seth, two of the sons of the original John Strickland, filled so important a position in the history of Jefferson county, that we single them out for special mention. We insert their biographical sketches in connection with the town of Wilna, because Mr. John E. Strickland, son of Seth and nephew of Miles, has for many years resided in the village of Carthage, a respected citizen and large property owner and tax-payer.

Miles Strickland was born in Bucks county, Pa., several years before his father removed to Philadelphia. He grew up on his father's farm, receiving a moderate education at the public school and partly from a Friend's school, established at Philadelphia at an early day. By profession he would naturally be classed as a farmer, but he was also a miller, he having been proprietor of the grist mill at Philadelphia in company with Mr. Edward Tucker, as well as engaged in other enterprises. As he grew in wealth, and reputation as a financier, he gave up his other pursuits more and more, until at last, his whole time was devoted to his own financial affairs. He married Miss Harriet A., Bronson, now deceased. He was a man of more than average capacity, and of excellent judgment, for which reason his advice was often sought by his neighbors. His business calling him often to Watertown, he finally made that city his home, and there he rounded out a useful and honorable life, dying March 17, 1893.

Seth Strickland, brother of the above, was born in Bucks county, Pa., in 1808, and accompanied his parents when they removed to the Black River country. The farm of his father was his home until he purchased a farm for himself, and entered upon his lifework. He married Miss Jane, daughter of Thomas Bones, another Pennsylvanian, a sister of William Bones, of the well-known iron firm of Budd & Bones, in active operation at Carthage in the forties. Mr. Strickland was a successful farmer, well known and universally respected. He died in 1873, leaving a comfortable fortune to be distributed among his children.
John E. Strickland, a leading and wealthy citizen of Carthage, was born in Philadelphia, N. Y., August 2, 1845. His early education was in the district school, supplemented by attendance at the Black River Literary Institute, at Watertown. His home was upon his father's farm until 19 years of age, when he entered the store of Mosher & Tucker at Philadelphia, where he remained about one and a half years, coming to Carthage in 1869, and entering the store of Bones & Frederick. In 1871 he went into the hardware business with Mr. John Rogers, the firm being Rogers & Strickland, which continued until 1879, when Mr. Strickland entered upon the business alone. In 1887 he received as a partner Mr. Henry M. Mosher, and the business is now conducted under the firm name of Strickland & Mosher.

October 9, 1873, Mr. Strickland married Sarah Elizabeth, daughter of Collins Miller, of Deer River, N. Y. They have reared three interesting children, Ruth Louise, Seth Miller, and John Lyle. Their home is a typical one--solid but not ostentatious.

Mr. Strickland is the proprietor of the Strickland block, a new building in the center of the village. It was begun in February, 1893, and was fully completed in 1894. There is no more substantial building in the county, and it is a credit to Carthage, for many reasons. The front is pressed (Trenton, N. J.) brick, and, with the Ohio blue stone, forms a peculiarly fine and massive combination. The front upon State street is 90 feet, and upon Mechanic street 105 feet. Mr. Griffin, of Watertown, was the architect. The mason and carpenter work has been done largely by Carthage mechanics, and they have produced a fine building.


JOHN STRICKLAND was born in. Bucks county, Pa., in 1757. In 1806 he emigrated to Jefferson county, and located in Philadelphia, N. Y., then a part of LeRay. He was a member of the Society of Friends, and possessed of a genial and kindly disposition. He brought with him a sum exceeding $25,000, with which he purchased 5,000 acres of land in that town. During the War of 1812 he bought supplies for the army, and at the termination of the war had a large quantity of supplies on hand, for which he received less than half their original cost. He was obliged to dispose of a portion of his land to payoff his indebtedness, after the accomplishment of which he had left of his once large estate only 220 acres. He died September 15, 1849, aged 92 years. At the age of 25 he married Margaret Stout, of German descent, with whom he resided 60 years. She died in 1853. Of their children, Elizabeth married Thomas Townsend, and died in 1864; John, Jr., married Rachel Townsend, and died in 1859; Sarah married Ezra Comley, and died in Pennsylvania in 1855; Deborah died in infancy; Ann married Edmund Tucker, and died in 1863; Mahlon married Mary, daughter of James Rogers, and died in 1871; Margaret married Samuel Case, and died in Chicago, in 1888, aged 91 years; Rachel married Samuel Rogers, and died in Philadelphia, N. Y., in 1863; Miles married Harriet A. Bronson (deceased); Martha married Robert Gray, and died in Wisconsin, in 1875; Seth, who was born in 1808, married Jane, daughter of Thomas Bones, January 25, 1835. Of their children, Ellen (Mrs. Isaac Mosher) and William reside in Philadelphia, N. Y., and John E. in Carthage. William Strickland was born October 15, 1839, and was reared on the homestead farm, which he inherited. He married Betsey J., daughter of Truman and Fanny (Allis) Oatman, of Philadelphia, N. Y., December 29, 1862, by whom he has had two children, Seth T., born March 12, 1866, who died May 7, 1871, and Anna Jane, born April 2, 1874. Mr. Wm. Strickland is a farmer, and resides in the village of Philadelphia.

GEORGE F. LEWIS, the very able photographer at Carthage, was born in Harrisburg, Lewis county, in 1847. He is the son of George and Alice (Gowdy) Lewis, residents of Harrisburg. He came to Carthage in 1871, and began to learn the art of photography from Mr. S. S. Richards. A fter working for him three years Mr. Lewis purchased the establishment, and has continued the business up to the present time without interruption, excepting during a few months following the fire of December 16, 1892, in which he lost many valuable negatives, now impossible to replace. The following summer he erected the fine block in which he has a studio. Mr. Lewis was married in July, 1874, to Miss Carrie O. Crane. They have reared two children, Grace, aged 19, and Fred W., aged 13. When Mr. Lewis thought of learning photography he mentally resolved that he would do his very best in everything he undertook. Though country-bred and not having the ad- vantages of travel or any opportunities for visiting the city galleries, he yet possessed a fine appreciation of art, which he has developed in a remarkable degree in his business. By thoroughness he has laid the foundation of a tine reputation as an artist. The writer, who has had some experience among photographers, regards him as standing very near the head of the many able men who take pictures in Jefferson county. Mr. Lewis, in addition to his fine block, has erected a neat residence on South James Street, where he resides, and his home is a typically happy one. He is an official member of the M. E. Church, and has maintained himself for many years as an accomplished artist and good citizen.
No MAN connected with the railroads of Northern New York has left a more favorable impression upon the community than Mr. Hammond, a Carthage boy, son of Theodore S. and Mary Ann (Wilkins) Hammond. His father was a courteous and refined gentleman, much respected for his intelligence and ability, long a land owner and lawyer at Carthage. His son Henry was born October 26, 1841, and had the advantages of the public schools of Carthage, and also of an academic education. He began railroad life in 1869, and built and operated 12 miles of the Carthage & Adirondack Railroad for two years, until the wooden rails gave out. He was supervisor of the town of Wilna in 1872 and 1873. In April, 1873, he commenced on the Utica & Black River Railroad as brakeman, and soon became conductor. This position he filled with entire acceptability, receiving much praise from the travelling public, as well as the unqualified commendation of his superiors upon the road. In December, 1879, he was promoted to assistant superintendent on the Utica & Black River road, which position he held until the latter was sold to the Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg road, and then was made division superintendent, with headquarters at Carthage. This position he held while under the management of the New York Central. He tendered his resignation November 1, 1891. The retirement of Mr. Hammond created considerable surprise at the time, but was well understood by his intimate friends. His beloved wife was ill, and he became her devoted and affectionate nurse, his devotion only terminating with her death, July 29, 1892. She was the daughter of Henry C. and Alvira Rich, of Carthage.

Mr. Hammond's continual attendance at his home, necessitated by his care for his sick wife, induced him to assume, temporarily, the position of station agent at the important village of Carthage. This position he was holding when appointed to the superintendency of the western division of the New York & New England Railroad, with headquarters at Hartford, Conn. He remained in that position until the general break-up which grew out of the attacks upon Mr. McLeod, the president of the great Reading Railroad system, and which was fraught with such immense losses to the Reading road, deranging all its relations with other roads. Mr. Hammond did not care to be unfaithful to his chief, and resigned his position when Mr. Parsons retired. Since then he has been a resident of Carthage, and his friends are anxious to again see him connected with railroading, and in a position equal to his abilities.

He deserves the popularity he has earned for kindness of heart is one of his predominating traits. He is the last representative of his family. His brother, Charles T. Hammond, was a prominent lawyer and Mason, and was Master of the Lodge when he died. Frederick, the youngest son, was a telegraph operator and a fine musician. Mrs. T. S. Hammond, their mother, died February 27, 1889, and was a resident of Carthage for 51 years. She and her husband were an exceptionally happy couple.

THE sudden and almost tragic death of this estimable lady, the oldest native-born inhabitant of Carthage, aroused much sympathy--for she had a large circle of friends and relatives and had lived an honored life, unstained by any scandal or breath of detraction. She had gone to Thousand Island Park for a few days' pleasure and social enjoyment, and was apparently in her usual health and spirits, when, but a few hours after her arrival there, on the 12th of September, 1894, she was suddenly attacked with complete mental paralysis, dying the same night. She never spoke a word after her attack, wholly unconscious of the loving care of her daughter, who had been for many years her mother's constant and affectionate companion. Mrs. Bickford was nearly 72 when she died--and all her mature years were years of usefulness and of self-denial. She was one of the few who fully justified "the honors she had gained." The author of this History discovered in her one whose active mind was ever alive to historical incidents. From her was gleaned very much that relates to earliest Carthage, for her father was one of the very first surveyors there, the contemporary of Brodhead and the various agents of the Chassanis (French) Company, who began at Castorland as early as 1793. Herself and her daughter indeed may be said to have prepared much of what is said in these pages about Wilna and Carthage, and those paragraphs relating to the Bonaparte history at Natural Bridge and Lake Bonaparte. Over a part of the ex-king's former possessions in Diana she had journeyed with the writer in pursuit of historical material.

She was married July 14, 1851, to Marcus Bickford, a native of Lowville, but who became early identified with Carthage, and remained so until his death, September 19, 1876. He was for many years regarded, and is still remembered as a well read and progressive man of this town, and a strong political leader in the Republican ranks, of which faith he was a stanch and unflinching advocate.

In March, 1860, he established the paper to which his wife gave its name, the Carthage Republican, and it was fitting that in its columns should appear a tribute to one who ever kept its interests in her remembrance, and in the early days of its existence labored for its success.

But her years of life are over; long and busy they have been, and crowned with fullness of days. "She rests from her labors and her works do follow her."

Two children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Bickford: Miss Florence Ida, who is the only surviving member of the family, and Cora H., who died November 1,1873.

Mrs. Bickford's maiden name was Jane Van Horn Hammond, second daughter of John D. Hammond. She was one of a family of 12 children, seven sons and five daughters. Of the five sisters she was the last survivor, and attained the greatest age, She was born on January 2, 1823, on the Alexandria road, in a house long since removed. She was of a particularly refined nature, possessing very quick intellectual perceptions, and had all the advantages it was possible to enjoy in those early days when the settlers were hewing their roof trees, and struggling for a future competence. In addition to possessing a superior English education, Mrs. Bickford spoke French with accuracy and fluency, even until the day of her death. She was an unusually brilliant conversationalist, and most graceful in expression.

SAMUEL KEYES, now in his 87th year, came to Wilna in 1819. His father took up land on the road leading to Natural Bridge, having removed hither from Montgomery county, N. Y. Wilna was then an almost unbroken wilderness. Samuel Keyes married Miss Mary Fulton, February 23d, 1831. He has held many town offices, including railroad commissioner, commissioner of excise, and supervisor. He raised three boys and two girls--all the sons are yet living: George, Samuel and Caleb; one of the daughters, Mrs. Alfreda Palmer, is yet living, but Mrs. Margaret Chaffee is dead. Mr. Keyes is yet vigorous, and the very day we interviewed him he had been hunting deer. His son Caleb conducts the farm.

DR. SETH FRENCH, one of the best remembered men in the 35th Regiment, in which he was acting surgeon, and therefore brought in daily contact with the men, was the son of Ezekiel and Sally (Chase) French, who were descended from the families that came to America from England in 1628-40, and settled in Massachusetts, the mother landing at Plymouth Rock. Ezekiel French was a farmer, settling eventually in Potsdam, St, Lawrence county, N. Y. He was a custom house officer of the United States government during the war of 1812, and had a brother who served in the battle of Sackets Harbor. From this patriotic ancestry came Dr. Seth French, the subject of this sketch. He was born in 1824, at Potsdam, N. Y., assisting his father on the farm in summers. He received his rudimentary education in the common schools, entering later the old St. Lawrence Academy at Potsdam, teaching school during the winters and working upon the farm in summer. The Doctor's life passed on until the death of his father made it necessary for the older ones of the family to assist themselves. The Doctor started for Natural Bridge; where his uncle, Dr. Elkanah French, was practicing medicine. This was in 1843. His uncle took him into his office, and when our incipient Doctor was sufficiently advanced he presented himself to the president of the Castleton (Vt.) Medical College, requesting admission upon credit, which was granted. The same request was again repeated at the beginning of the second term (the old debt having been paid from the avails of school--teaching during the college vacation), and by such self denials and struggles the Doctor at last, in 1847, obtained his diploma, and began the practice of medicine. The hardships he thus endured had strengthened a naturally good constitution, and perhaps no young man ever entered upon the practice of a profession in Jefferson county who had higher ambitions or a more honest heart. Armed with these grand equipments, he was prepared for any emergency, and his subsequent success as a civilian practitioner of medicine and as a surgeon in the Union army bore evidence of his ability and the extent of his acquirements. He practiced at Carthage for two years and was superintendent of schools. In 1849 he started for California via Cape Horn, being 315 days on the journey. Remaining in California over a year, he was moderately successful, and returned to Carthage at the end of 1850, and resumed practice. Soon after his return to from California Dr. French married Miss Harriet Guyot, daughter of Bazille Guyot, one of the early settlers of Carthage, whose descendants are yet prominently connected with its mechanical pursuits. The Doctor remained in active practice at Carthage until 1854, when he removed to Redwood. It was while practicing at Redwood that the attack was made upon Fort Sumter. He assisted in raising Company I, of the 35th N. Y. Vol. Infantry. Into this work he entered with his usual energy, and the company was soon filled. The doctor accompanied that organization to Elmira, and was the men's medical attendant during the rendevous there, and subsequently mustered into the United States service with his regiment as 1st assistant surgeon, in which capacity he accompanied his comrades to Washington and to the front, sharing in all its privations and varied service during the next two years. His arduous care for the sick endeared him to the entire command, and he is gratefully remembered as an honorable, high-toned officer. The gallant old 35th never made a march nor fought a battle when Dr. French was not present. In the spring of 1863 he was promoted to be surgeon of the 21st N. Y. Regiment of Infantry, and detailed for duty as acting surgeon of the 35th.

On being mustered out of service the Doctor removed to Eau Clair, Wisconsin, where he was engaged in the drug trade for 10 years. His services in the field had brought on attacks of rheumatism, which turned his thoughts more or less towards a warmer climate for winter. His attention was attracted towards Sanford, Florida, upon the St. Johns river, at the head of large steamer transportation on Lake Monroe. At Sanford he made his home from 1872 to 1875 and engaged in the cultivation of oranges and other semi-tropical fruits.

The Doctor and his partners purchased a tract of 7,000 acres in Volusia county, about 15 miles from Sanford, and on it established what is now known as Orange City, Florida. He was elected State Senator in the meantime. The 7,000 acres were sold to actual settlers, the lands proving exceptionally fine for orange-culture. The Doctor's services as State Senator resulted in the establishment of the Florida Bureau of Immigration (the first in the South after the war), of which he was its commissioner. The literature emanating from his office at Jacksonville ("Florida as it is"), did much to spread information relating to that State. His assistant was Watertown's well-known and honored townsman, Mr. Samuel Fairbanks. The direct results of that class of literature have been frequent and important. In 1881 he removed again to Sanford, which is his present home.

The Doctor and Mrs. French have reared three children: Adele, the wife of Mr. Edward T. Lane, of Anderson, Indiana; Hattie, wife of Mr. Wm. F. Leavitt, of Sanford, Fla., and A. V. French, the only son, who resides near Sanford, and is engaged in orange culture.

The history of Dr. French illustrates in a marked degree what perseverance; energy and integrity will accomplish. He began poor and was not favored by influential friends, but he built up a name for integrity and skill as a physician that will endure long after he has passed away. Once, when a boy, he visited the Hon. Silas Wright, at Canton, and Mr. Wright asked him what he proposed to become. Young French replied, "Well, sir, I don't know." Mr. Wright turned to him and in all earnestness said, "My young friend, you can become anything you desire." This was ever an incentive to the Doctor. He aimed high, and though he has probably never achieved what he sometimes hoped to, he has at least achieved enduring remembrance in the hearts of the men with whom he served in the Union army. His life shows what even a poor boy can attain in this free land. Indeed, we know of no life that has been spent in this county which contains more encouragement for a struggling young man than that of Dr. French. We knew him well in the field, for he gave tender care to many of my wounded men, some of whom he stood over in death. He was a courageous man, the shriek of shells never made him nervous. He was the soldier's friend. J.A.H.

MARTIN RUGG was born near Martinsburg in 1818, son of Elijah Rugg, who came from Vermont. At the age of 10 Martin's parents removed to Pamelia, where he learned the shoemaker's trade. In 1836 he came to Carthage, where he soon began business for himself, and rapidly accumulated a fortune. He retired from business in 1881, and has since then devoted himself to the care of his estate. He has been an estimable citizen for many years, and enjoys the respect of his neighbors. Mr. Rugg has the handsomest private residence in Carthage. He had three brothers, Charles, George and Silas, all deceased, and they were respected citizens. George was a resident of New York city during the latter part of his life, and his family resides in that city. Mrs. Silas Rugg is a resident of Carthage. Charles Rugg conducted a brick yard for several years in Carthage. This family has been unusually industrious and enterprising and are another illustration of what labor and sticking to it will accomplish joined to good health.

O. T. ATWOOD, associate editor of the Republican for a short time and an attorney and counsellor-at-law, and afterward clerk in the Treasury Department at Washington.

MICHAEL D. MCCANNA was a popular postmaster and universally respected.
CAPTAIN J. A. BROWN was a veteran of the late war and in a rebel prison for two years. His health was undermined by the hardships endured while in prison.
JOHN C. KELLOGG reared a large family of children and afterward married Mrs. Lydia Hoyt. He was an enterprising citizen.
JOHN T. WALSH built the Mechanics' Hall Block and has been a business man of Carthage for many years; now retired.
NOYES TUTTLE was for many years proprietor of a grist-mill in Carthage and moved to Utica, where he and his wife died.
JESSE VAN SLYKE kept the Levis House, and died March 10, 1865, aged 35, leaving many friends.
H. C. RICH, who resided for many years on the site of the Bones block in a house long since destroyed.
WM. H. HUBBY, who with Deacon Weed were once prominent business men, under the name of Hubby & Weed. Mr. Hubby was an active, shrewd man. Visiting Milwaukee on business, he lost his life by the wreck of the Lady Elgin.
CLARK WAY, a prominent merchant of Carthage, who sold out to Mr. C. Frederick. He was a citizen whose death, September 14, 1860, cast a gloom over the community. Resolutions of respect by Carthage Lodge, No. 158, were signed by Joseph Crowner, Chas. T. Hammond and George Gilbert, committee, now all deceased.
DR. B. S. BUDD, for many years a practicing physician of Carthage. His son, William C., was killed in battle in an Iowa regiment. B. C. Budd, another son, was also in the service and won distinction.
JAMES T. PEDEN, for many years a popular physician of Carthage.
RICHARD GALLAGHER was one of the early merchants of Carthage building the Gallagher block, and was associated with Mr. Woolson at one time in the furniture business, manufacturing the same by horse-power. Mr. Gallagher was a leading citizen and merchant and one of the prime movers in the introduction of the present free school system. He was twice married and reared a large family, and died in the spring of 1890. A steamboat on Black river, built in 1860, was named after him.
ABEL NUTTING, who was captain of home guards and in the late war, serving with distinction.
ALMONT BARNES, formerly editor of the Black River Budget, was captain of Company C., 1st N. Y. Artillery, and was active in recruiting soldiers. He was lieutenant in the Carthage Battery.
ALVA WILSON, another editor of the Black River Budget, was captain in an Iowa regiment.
CHARLES W. SMITH, supervisor of the town of Wilna in 1860, was a gentleman who had many friends. He and his wife died universally respected.
CLARK DODGE, for many years a prominent merchant of Carthage, and a banker in Boonville at the time of his death. In early manhood he was a wagon-maker in Carthage He built Dodge block, which was burned in 1861, and a fine residence on State street burned in 1884. His son, Eugene, is a banker in Boonville, and was a lieutenant in the late war.
TITUS MORGAN was for many years in the harness business in Carthage, and was postmaster in 1861. He and his wife were Universalists in belief, and lived honorable lives, the most of which was spent in Carthage. His father, Pliny Morgan, came to his death by falling down stairs, and died in Wilna, March 3, 1863, aged 92 years.
HENRY B. EDMONDS was born in the town of Orleans in 1840, and is the son of Benjamin D. Edmonds. He came to Carthage in 1876, where he acted as station agent for the Utica & Black River R. R. until 1887, when he interested himself in insurance. In 1893 he was elected justice of the peace. He married Mary A. Miller, of Orleans, and they have one son, Harry J. Mr. Edmonds is a thorough business man, who has many friends.
JOHN BETTIS VINIER was born in Canada, in 1814, and came to Carthage when a lad. He married Alice, daughter of Alexander Yattau, both of French descent. They had 10 children, four living: John B. and Frank served in the late war, now deceased; Eleazer J. and George are business men of Carthage; Mary Alice, his daughter, is the wife of Victor Guyot, of Carthage. John B. Vinier, the father, has been a life-long resident of Carthage, and a quiet and respected citizen. His wife died in April, 1894, aged 71 years.
HENRY HABERER was village undertaker, and a business man of Carthage for many years. His sons are large furniture manufacturers at Lowville.
CHARLES H. KIMBALL, a well-known resident of Carthage, was born July 17, 1812, and was the son of Richard H. and Deborah (Saltmarsh) Kimball, of Haverhill, Mass. He married Miss Julia V. Vinton, of Cornish, N. H. Their children are: Mrs. Julia Briggs of Rome, N. Y.; Mrs. Augusta V. Smith, of Boston, Mass.; Mrs. Carrie S. Wilmot, of Watertown; Mrs. Mary K. Mason, of Jamestown, N. Y.; Mrs. Deborah K. Foster, of Parsons, Can., and Hon. Charles H. Kimball, Jr., of the same place, where he is State Senator. Mr. Kimball, Sr., died in 1883. His widow survives him a most estimable lady. Mr. Klmball was a skillful stone mason and built many of the most substantial buildings of Carthage.
GEORGE B. FARRINGTON was the second son of Harvey and Delia (Ellis) Farrington, who came from Dedham, Mass., to Watertown to reside. After spending some years there they bought a farm in Rutland, where their son George was born. From there they removed to Carthage, where he remained until the age of 14 years; then going to Watertown he became a clerk in the store of Cady & Hawks. From there he went to New York, when, at the age of 20, he became junior member of the dry goods house of Eno, Roberts & Co. Unfortunately the house did a large business in the South, and at the time of the Rebellion was, with so many others, a victim. He then engaged in the tea-business, and for more that 20 years successfully conducted one of the largest trades of the kind in New York city. His success in business was largely owing to his honor and integrity. His only capital at the beginning was the possession of those virtues in a marked degree. Early in life he married Amelia A., the only daughter of James P. Hodgkins, and for 35 years spent an exceptionally happy married life in Brooklyn. Perhaps we can better portray his true character by giving what his neighbors and friends said of him at his death, which occurred December 6, 1892: "He was all that constituted a great man--in strength of character, in majesty and culture of intellect, in refinement and tenderness of manly affection, in his firm devotion to the sentiments of truth. He possessed a wealth of manhood that made him stand in reality, as he did in physical stature, head and shoulders above the multitudes. He was a man who would have graced the highest position in our nation, but who cast aside flattering offers of political honors. He preferred the quiet of his family and companionship of his books. He was diligent in business, generous with his means, and has left an indellible influence for good upon the young wherever his character was understood."
NICHOLAS WAGONER, a prominent resident of Carthage and Wilna for 35 years, was born July 12, 1828, at Fort Plain, N. Y., the son of William and Leah Wagoner. He was one of a large family of children, and when about 15 years of age came with his parents to Natural Bridge and assisted at clearing and stocking the farm. He became tired of agricultural pursuits and in 1850 removed to Carthage and purchased a canal boat. Success attended his efforts. For many years he was the only coal dealer in Carthage. In 1853 he married Miss Ellen P. Levis, daughter of the late William P. Levis (who came to Carthage in 1837, and died in 1873). Mr. Wagoner's children are: E. C. Wagoner, Carrie (Mrs. George Manchester, of Pittsburg, Pa.), and Grace. Mr. Wagoner was a firm Republican, and was often called to fill positions of trust. He was president of the village three terms, trustee of the village 17 terms, and at the time of his death in 1886, was the village and town assessor, which office he had held for many years. For a number of years he was treasurer of the Carthage Union Agricultural Society. "Nick," as he was familiarly called, was the friend of everybody and universally beloved and esteemed. His widow resides in Carthage with her son.
DR. ELI WEST was a native of Hampton, Washington county, N. Y., and was born July 26, 1792. He became a resident of Carthage in 1816, and for many years was a well known and popular physician, a justice of the peace and a leading citizen. He was the first Master of Carthage Lodge No. 158, F. A. M., upon its first institution in 1850. His son, Eugene West, was postmaster at Carthage at one time, and DeWitt C., another son, became a prominent merchant at Lowville, Lewis county, and was president of the Utica & Black River R. R. Dr. West died in Carthage, July 23, 1866, aged 74 years.
JESSE E. WILLIS was born in Berne, Albany county, N. Y., in March, 1821, where he resided until 13 years of age, at which time his father came to Carthage, and engaged in the manufacture of axes. At 21 Jesse served an apprenticeship at the blacksmith's trade in Antwerp. In 1844 he married Betsey Seymour, and removed to Somerville, St. Lawrence county. In 1862 he was appointed quartermaster, with the rank of captain, in the volunteer service of the Union army. He was assigned to duty at Keokuk, Iowa, and was mustered out at the close of the war. In 1868 he returned to Carthage. In February, Captain Willis was appointed postmaster at Carthage, which position he held for 17 consecutive years. He nearly lost his life by falling from the tower of the Presbyterian church. In 1853 he was elected Member of Assembly. His first wife died in 1875, after which he married Miss Mary E. Miller. Mr. Willis died May 13, 1889.
MANLY LOOMIS is one of the earliest settlers of the village of Carthage. He knows of no man who was a resident when he came, in 1841. He was born September 7, 1817, of English descent, and the son of Alvin Loomis, who came to Champion in 1832. In 1857 Manly started the manufacture of carriages, in which business he has been interested longer than any other person in the town. Carthage was called "Long Falls," and had no shade trees or sidewalks when he came. Mr. Loomis is an Abolitionist, and in early days the colored man found a shelter with him. He was at one time candidate for Member of Assembly on the Abolition ticket. He is a strong temperance man, and at the age of 77 is still an active business man. He married Rachel Baldwin, of Albany, N. Y., in 1839. Their children are: George (deceased), Stoel W., Jay A., Laura and Lucelia, wife of Frank G. Willis, who resides in Evansville, Ind. George served three years in the 2nd N. Y. Heavy Artillery, and died in September, 1894. He never entirely recovered from the hardships endured while in the army. Stoel also served in the 2nd N. Y. Heavy Artillery, and held the office of corporal and sergeant. Stoel is in business with his father, and Jay is also an enterprising business man.
JOHN S. EDWARDS was born in Trumbull, Conn., March 23, 1803, coming from the family that produced the celebrated Jonathan Edwards. During the early part of his life he taught school, and afterwards engaged in mercantile business at Stephney, Conn. In the spring of 1828 he removed with his wife (whose maiden name was Climena Nichols) to Black Lake, St. Lawrence county, N. Y., where he carried on a general store and hotel. The postoffice of Edwardsville was established about this time, he being the first postmaster. In 1837 Mr. Edwards purchased 62,000 acres of land, being part of the McComb purchase, and soon after removed to Antwerp, and thence to Plainfield, N. J., where he resided until 1846, in which year he was appointed agent by Dr. Austin Sherman, of New York, for the sale of certain lands owned by him in Jefferson county. He then removed to Carthage, where he resided (with the exception of three years spent in Albany, N. Y.) until the time of his death, May,1893. Mr. Edwards was much esteemed in the community, where he had repeatedly been elected to local offices on the Democratic ticket. For many years he was a member of the First Baptist Church of Carthage. His daughter. Mrs. Amanda Manning, died March 9, 1895. She was thc oldest of five children, and much respected.
FOSTER PENNIMAN was born in Black River, May 13. 1824. He is the son of Zurial Penniman, who came from Keene, Vt. Foster has been a resident of Wilna for 54 years. He moved to Carthage about 1887. He has been supervisor of the town two terms and held many minor town offices. He married Esther Pierce, of Black River, and their children are: Charles, who occupies the homestead in Wilna, and Nancy, wife of Charles Strickland, of Denmark. Mr. Penniman is much respected by his neighbors and friends.
REMSEN R. BROWN, for many years a hotel-keeper in Jefferson county, and for the past 35 years a resident of Carthage, was born in Sharon, Schoharie county, N. Y., in 1810. He was the son of Peter and Mary (Loucks) Brown. Remsen R. Brown came into Jefferson county in 1818 with his parents, who settled in the town of Antwerp at what is now known as Bentley's Corners. There his father and mother reared a large family of children, an of whom are now deceased except Remsen R., who remained at home with his father until 1821, when he went to Alexandria Bay and entered the employ of Chauncey Westcott, one of the first inn-keepers upon the great river. In this county he was first known as an hotel-keeper at Felts Mills. He came to Carthage in 1854 and purchased the Horace Henry hotel, then a small hostelry, which Mr. Brown enlarged and kept until 1861, the fire of that year totally destroyed it. One month after the fire he began to rebuild, and in a little over three months he put up what is now the Levis House. In 1870 he sold that property, and retired from hotel-keeping. He is now in his 85th year, enjoying good health, and having the appearance of a man of 65. His wife is still spared to share his earthly pilgrimage. She has been faithful to the fortunes of her husband in all seasons and under all circumstances.
LOUIS FREDERICK BACHMAN, for many years a leading business man of Carthage, was born in Plenschitz, Germany, January 24, 1840. He was the son of John Bachman, and came with his parents when but 10 years of age to Naumburgh, Lewis county. He was in the stores of F. G. Connell and Bones & Frederick until the opening of the war, when he enlisted in Company D, 10th N. Y. Heavy Artillery, receiving promotion from time to time, and discharged in 1864 as quartermaster sergeant. After the war he studied pharmacy in the West, and returning to Carthage in 1865, again entered the employ of Bones & Frederick. He purchased Mr. Bones' interest on the death of the latter, and entered into business under the firm name of Frederick & Bachman. This firm was dissolved in 1877, when Mr. Bachman opened a drug store across the street, which he occupied until his death, April 9, 1888. He married Miss Vina Scheffry, of Wilna, January 24, 1872, and they have three children, all of whom survive him. Mr. Bachman was a conscientious Christian gentleman. He was devotedly attached to the M. E. Church, in which he was a consistent member, carrying out the injunction to be "diligent in business, serving the Lord."
JOHN WHALING, the present postmaster at Carthage, was born in the town of Philadelphia, July 29, 1851, and is the son of John Whaling, who came to this country in 1848, and died in 1872. John was reared on a farm near Philadelphia, and has been a life-long resident of the county. After having the advantages of the common schools, he attended Ives Seminary, at Antwerp. The efficient and obliging manner in which he filled the position of deputy postmaster under L. H. Mills, and afterward that of acting postmaster, won the respect of the public, proving him to be a clear-headed, progressive business man. He has been chosen three times to represent the town of Wilna as its supervisor. He is interested in a stock farm near Philadelphia, and is secretary of the Carthage Driving Park Association. He is a member of the firm of Walsh & Whaling, furniture dealers who carry a large stock of goods.
LEWIS H. MILLS, a prominent and successful business man of Carthage, was born in Kent county, Conn., the son of Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Webster Mills. Early in life he developed the sterling business qualities of his New England parentage, and at 18 started out for himself. He was married, May 16, 1851, to Fidelia Pitkin, of Hartford, Conn., and came soon after to Sterlingville, this county, and engaged in merchandise with his uncle, Ezra Shipp. After various business ventures at Harrisville, Lowville and Great Bend, he purchased the Walton House and store at Sterlingville. In April, 1864, his wife died. At Sterlingville he carried on the iron business for several years, coming to Carthage in 1869, and with Mr. Gere, from Syracuse, purchased the old furnace property, and organized the Carthage Iron Company. They carried on the iron business for many years. In 1865 Mr. Mills married Julia A. Sterling, daughter of James Sterling, one of the old iron masters of Jefferson county. At the time of his death Mr. Mills was extensively engaged in the lumber business in Carthage. On Christmas day, 1888, he dropped dead in his store. In 1886 he had been appointed postmaster, and held that position at the time of his death. He had two sons by his second wife, Louis and Antoine, the latter a law student with Hon. Mr. Kilby.
HENRY FLINT, long a resident of North Wilna, has resided there for the past 20 years. He is the son of Oliver and Sally (Scofield) Flint. He was born and resided in the town of LeRay. He had the benefit of the common schools, but this privilege was gained only by walking six miles each day, milking 10 cows night and morning, but he utilized his evenings by studying his books by the light of a tallow candle. The Judge is a little proud in relating the obstacles that he overcame in obtaining an education. He has remained a farmer all his life, and owns one of the best farms in North Wilna, but he has also been a local politician, and is now, as he has been for several years, a leading Democrat of Wilna. The recent landslide that has overtaken his party was a dissappointment to him, but he does not waver in his devotion to Hill and his fortunes. He has been justice of sessions for two terms, and was for three years a justice of the peace, and has held many minor positions in his town. The Judge is now 55 years of age, has reared a family of four children, all daughters, and they are all married and settled in life.
SAMUEL LOOMIS was born in Connecticut, and was an early settler in the town of Champion. He married Sally Sanders, who was born in Halifax, Vt., and came to Champion in 1807, residing near Pleasant Lake. She died near Carthage in 1875. Samantha, the only surviving child, was born in Champion in 1814, and married Abram Smith, taking up their residence in Denmark. In 1852 Mr. Smith went to California, and was killed by a land-slide in 1854. They had two daughters: Cledectine, who died in 1857, and Sarah M., wife of Nelson Lamphear. Nelson has three children: Burton, Fanny and Fred. Mrs. Smith has resided in Carthage and vicinity during the past 30 years with her daughter, Mrs. Lamphear. Corinna Loomis, another daughter of Samuel Loomis was born in 1807, and married, when19 years of age, Hiram Lamphear, whom she survived a few years and again married William Bassett of Denmark. She died in Carthage, in 1883.
PALMER SCOTT was born in Massachusetts in 1802. He married Betsey Jones, from the State of Maine, and came to Felts Mills. In 1846 they came to Carthage, where they resided until their death. Mr. Scott was a tanner by trade, and filled acceptably minor offices in the town, and was overseer of the poor. He died in April, 1880, aged 78 years. His wife died in 1872, aged 72 years. Their children are: William J., Lewis W. and Elbridge G., well-known and respected citizens of Carthage and vicinity. Elbridge, who was deputy postmaster for 13 years, died in January, 1888, aged 50 years.
MRS. DANIEL BELLINGER has been a resident of Carthage for 41 years. Her maiden name was Mary S. Hyne. She was married October 2, 1831, and was born in Montreal. After her marriage and a residence in New Jersey and other places, they finally came to Carthage. Mr. Bellinger was a tanner by trade, and died August 29, 1861. Of Mrs. Bellinger's six daughters, five are living. At the age of 88 years, Mrs. Bellinger is a remarkably intelligent lady, spending her declining years in the Christian's hope, surrounded by her descendants to the second and third generation.
VICTOR SALTZMAN AND WIFE, an old Swiss couple, came to Carthage in 1829. They lived in a log house, about one and a half miles from Carthage, on the road to the " Checkered House." There were, at that time, but two dwellings between the Hammond House, where the Baptist Church now stands, and the Saltzman's, namely, the Guyot house, where the circus ground now is, on State street, and the old Carr house, which stood just above Carr Hill, one mile from the bridge in Carthage. The Checkered House was kept at that time by John Morris, a man who weighed upwards of 300 pounds. He afterwards kept the lower tavern in Carthage, which stood on the corner of State and Water streets. This same Checkered House was kept by another very fat man, by the name of Reuben Rice, who also came to Carthage afterwards, and kept the lower hotel. This Mr. Saltzman had two sons, Charles and August N., and two daughters, Mary Ann and Eliza. Charles lived in Carthage until within a few years, and died at an advanced age. August was a very active, bright boy, and at 17 was sent to Switzerland to learn the watch making trade. In 1840 he opened a watch repairing shop in Carthage. He married Miss Minerva Auburn, a very handsome blond, and went to New York city in 1845 or 1846. There he opened a wholesale watch establishment, under the firm name of A. N. Saltzman & Co. He invented a watch, which was well and favorably known all through the country as the "Saltzman Swiss watch" It is now considered the best watch in the market, but too high priced for the present day. He became very wealthy, and resides in Paris. His wife is dead. Mary Ann married for her first husband a French gentleman by the name of Vuillaum, by whom she had one son Victor Vuillaum. The latter married the widow of the late Charles T. Hammond, and now resides in Florida. For her second husband she married a Canadian Frenchman, by the name of Julius Marseil, by whom she had a daughter, Elese, and a son Eugene. Eliza Saltzman, who was a very handsome woman, married John Pooler, who was half brother to the late Hiram McCollom. Mr. Pooler also became wealthy, and is now deceased. None of the family live near Carthage, save August, a son of Charles, and a grandson of the old man, Victor Saltzman.
JAMES H. WILBUR was born in Lowville, N. Y., October 7, 1838, and was educated in the common schools and in Lowville Academy. He learned the printer's trade and worked for several years in offices of local papers. In 1858 he sailed for Oregon, by way of the Isthmus of Panama. At the city of Portland, in partnership with W. B. Taylor, he commenced publishing the "Portland Daily Morning News," said to be the first daily morning paper ever published in Oregon. In 1860 his health failed and he was obliged to return East, where he worked on Lowville papers and on the Carthage Republican, which paper he purchased in 1868, and later sold an interest in the same to Mr. M. M. Williams. In 1864 he was married to Miss Elvira Edwards, daughter of John S. Edwards. In 1872 the Republican was sold to S. R. Pratt, and Mr. Wilbur, on account of ill-health, was obliged to retire from active life.
VIRGIL BROOKS was among the early settlers of the village of Carthage. He was American born and came in 1820. Mr. Brooks was a sober, industrious and kind-hearted man, and always enjoyed the confidence and respect of all who have known him. He was a justice of the peace for many years, and was always called "Squire Brooks." He was president of the village trustees and an exemplary member of the Presbyterian Church. He died February 5, 1865, aged 75 years. For many years he acted as marshal or director of funerals. In those days the dead were placed upon a bier and borne on the shoulders of able-bodied men.

The Brooks house stood on the corner of State and School streets, on the present site of John Norton's house, near which was a well of excellent water, which with another in front of the old Cutler house (where the Hammond homestead now stands), afforded the only good drinking water in that part of the town. The old "Brooks' well" is surrounded by many tender memories of early Carthagenians. Mr. Brooks had two daughters, Salina and Hannah. He had five sons: Alonzo, Lorenzo, Monroe, Virgil and Ormando. Virgil died at the age of 16. Alonzo joined the patriots, and was taken prisoner by the Canadians, and banished with many others to Van Dieman's land. After remaining a few years he escaped and returned to Carthage, but was always in great fear of recapture. Monroe and Ormando both became acceptable Methodist ministers.

JAMES WARD was born in New York city. August 8, 1801. When about two years of age he came to the town of LeRay. He was of a retiring disposition and did not seek prominence, refusing all offers of a public or political nature. He bought a farm near Evans Mills, the present home of his son, Buel Ward, and finally became a real-estate broker and a money lender, in which he accumulated a fine competence. He married, in 1825, Lovina Barbour, of Champion. Their wedded life covered a span of 55 years. Mrs. James Ward was a model wife and mother. She was well-read in history, and possessed a fund of general information which rendered her a most agreeable companion and friend. Out of a family of 11 children, but one is deceased, and the youngest has lived to be 48. Mrs. Ward died at the age of 80, and Mr. Ward in his 80th year. The last 17 years of his life were spent in Carthage, where both he and his wife died.
SANFORD LEWIS was born in the town of Wilna, and was the son of Stephen and Sophia Lewis, who were among the first settlers. Stephen built the hotel in North Wilna, and his father built one previously near by. Sanford Lewis had five daughters: Emeline (Mrs. E. H. Olmstead); Adelaide (Mrs. John Freeman. of Great Bend); Mary (Mrs. Andrew Dickson); Libbie B. (Mrs. Charles Sarvey, of Carthage); Ada, Mrs. W. M. Maine, of North Wilna. Mr. Lewis died in 1891. He was postmaster at North Wilna for many years, and the oldest in the State at the time of his death.
EDGAR B. WILLIS, son of Amos Willis, the daguerrean, served in the 35th Regiment. He was shot through the face and reported killed and his funeral sermon preached in Carthage. Pieces of shell were taken from the wound which weighed 3-1/2 oz., which he carried 64 days. He rallied and came home and lived several years.
CHRISTOPHER S. POOR was for many years a respected citizen of Deer River and Carthage. He came to Carthage about 1870, and there he spent the remainder of his life. Mr. Poor was a builder and contractor, and to that business he gave his best energies. In 1844 he married Miss Maria Clark, of Denmark. They were burned out in the great fire at Carthage. Mr. Poor died in October, 1887. His widow still survives him, and is a very interesting and lovable character. Both her and her husband were nearly all their lives consistent members of the M. E. Church, to which Mr. Poor was an unusually liberal contributor. Mrs. Poor still maintains her residence in Carthage, but spends her summers in her neat cottage at Thousand Island Park, where she is as well known and as much respected as at her home in Carthage. Her father was William Clark, of Denmark, Lewis county, N.Y.
FRANKLIN P. EVANS, special surrogate of Jefferson county, has been a citizen of Carthage for the past 29 years. He was born in Trenton, N. Y., the son of John and Louisa Evans, whose ancestors came into Oneida county early in the century. Frank was educated in the common schools, completing his education in the Union Free School of Carthage. He studied law with Capt. Welch and A. H. Francis, being admitted to the bar in 1876. He is a popular young man. He married, in 1877, Miss Josephine N., the youngest daughter of Dr. Spaulding, of Watertown.
CHARLES P. RYTHER was born at Evans Mills in 1833. His father was Peter H. Ryther, a noted mechanic of Evans Mills, who removed to Theresa about 1845, and there, Chas. P. reached his majority. He came to Carthage in 1868, where he has since resided. Soon after coming to Carthage he purchased an interest in the firm of Brown & Bliss. In 1871 Mr. Pringle was received into partnership, when the firm became Brown, Ryther & Pringle. Subsequently the Brown interest was purchased by the other partners, and the firm became Ryther & Pringle. The business is general machinery. Mr. Ryther has been quite a politician. He has been president of the village. At the time of the Carthage fire he was made chairman and treasurer of the relief committee. His labors were onerous, but he gave general satisfaction--a thing hard to accomplish under such trying circumstances. Mr. Ryther has been twice married. His first wife was Miss Mary M. De Groat, and she died in 1889. He married Mrs. Georgiana Stevens in December, 1890.
DR. FRANKLIN EVANS ROBINSON was born in Waterloo, N. Y., June 26, 1845. His father was Evans Robinson, M. D., who was born in Pennsylvania. He practiced in Rochester, N. Y., and other cities for nearly 40 years, dying in Rochester in 1884. Franklin Evans, the subject of this sketch, was educated principally in the common schools, then in Prof. Vroman's school, in West Geneva, N. Y.; then in Lima, Livingston county, where he completed his scholastic education. His medical education he received partly at the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, afterwards a course in homeopathy at Cleveland Homeopathic College. He began practice in Brooklyn, N. Y., where he resided for 15 years, practicing both in New York and Brooklyn. He was married in 1881 to Miss Lillie Ludlam, of Oyster Bay, Long Island. The delicate health of a favorite daughter induced Dr. Robinson to visit the Adirondack region for the benefit of his child, which brought him incidentally to Carthage. He purchased the extensive and valuable property he now occupies in the suburbs of Carthage, comprising 68 acres and running a full fourth of a mile on the river front, capable of being utilized for manufacturing to that extent. He has built a valuable pulp mill, with five sets of grinders, capable of producing 15 tons of dry pulp per day--equal to 40 tons of wet pulp. He floats his spruce timber down Black river. His expenditure has reached the large sum of $120,000. The principal part of his pulp is marketed in the South and West. In company with all other business occupations, the pulp industries of Black river experienced great depressions during 1894. The Doctor is a very intelligent, progressive gentleman, and has his business well in hand. He appears to have made a success of manufacturing, though not educated for that branch of business. On the west end of his property Dr. Robinson has built a beautiful dwelling, where he resides with his family. They have raised three children, who are all at home.
JOHN HEWITT was the second white child born in Carthage, probably in 1805. He was an industrious and respected citizen, dying in 1878, in his 73d year. He married Hepsey Silena Bassett, whose parents came into the county from Connecticut. They raised three children, one of their sons, Gautier, being a resident of Honolulu, Sandwich Islands, a trusted employe of Spreckles, the sugar king. John Hewitt was a brother to Clark Hewitt, who was long a resident and popular inn keeper in Watertown. His daughter married Hon. Pardon C. Williams, and is a most estimable and respected lady of Watertown.
DANIEL POTTER was born in Connecticut in 1801. His brothers were John and Cicero, and Thankful was his sister. He was married in Gouverneur, St. Lawrence county, February 1, 1831, to Miss Almira, daughter of Angel and Ruth Potter, and sister of Henry G. and John A. Potter, late of Carthage. Daniel was supervisor of the town of Champion during the war, residing at Great Bend, and a merchant and the first postmaster at that place. In 1867 he purchased the brick block on the corner of State and Church streets in Carthage, where he resided until he died, April 9, 1876, aged 75 years. Mrs. Daniel Potter is residing in Carthage with her niece, Mrs. Jay A. Loomis, and is a remarkably smart and intelligent lady for her age. She was born July 24, 1806, and is 88 years of age. She is one of the oldest members of the Baptist church of Carthage.
LOUIS FREDERICK GAUDIN came from Switzerland to New York city in 1819. He married Madeline Buller, who died in that city. His son, Andrew Jackson Gaudin, was born in New York city, in 1833, and went to Fowler, St. Lawrence county, when but three years of age. He was afterwards educated in French in New York city. He came to Carthage in 1874, and followed the carpenter trade, proving himself an industrious, active man until unfortunately injured by a runaway horse, from the effects of which he was rendered helpless for many months and has never fully recovered. He has very acceptably filled the offices of street commissioner, poor master, and town, village and school collector for many terms. He was married in Watertown in 1868 to Lucinda Price, of Amsterdam, and they have three daughters, Mary E., Emma M. , and Eva L. The two eldest are efficient teachers. Mr. Gaudin is a Democrat, and by his genial manner has won many friends.
REV. DAVID BOUTWELL WHITE was born in the town of Tully, Onondaga county, N. Y., April 6, 1831. His early life was spent on a farm with his parents, Francis V. and Phebe White. During the summer he assisted on the farm. His mind early turned to religious subjects. In the spring of 1852 he attended Falley Seminary, at Fulton, N. Y., and graduated from that institution June 28, 1855, as valedictorian of his class. May 7, 1856, he married Sarah H. VanAllen, of Pillar Point, N. Y. (whose maternal grandfather, Robert Ackerman, served in thc war of 1812 with several of his sons). The same year Mr. White was received into the Black River Conference. When the War of the Rebellion broke out he enlisted as a private, October, 1861, and assisted in raising a company under Col. O. B. Pierce, with headquarters at Rome, N. Y. Mr. White was commissioned captain of Company I, 81st N. Y. Vol. Infantry. In February they were ordered to the field, under General McClellan, and engaged in the Peninsula campaign of 1862. He was promoted to major in October, and soon after his command was engaged in the bombardment of Charleston, S. C. He participated in many important engagements. August 10, 1864, he was detailed to the command of the 5th Maryland Regiment. In February he was commissioned lieutenant colonel. The regiment was mustered out of service, August 31, 1865. For meritorious services, President Johnson conferred upon him the title of brevet brigadier-general, July 23, 1867. After further meritorious service he came to Carthage in 1883 as pastor of the M. E. Church. After a long illness he died, December 13, 1888, in that village. The children of Mr. and Mrs. White are: George L., who died November 22, 1887; Lora E., wife of Wm. B. Kesler; Imogene, who resides in Carthage.
ALONZO H. FRANCIS was born in the town of Champion in 1829. He is the son of Elijah and Hulda (Andrews) Francis. He read law with Judge Mullin, and was admitted to the bar in 1854. After 12 years' practice of his chosen profession at Three Mile Bay he came to Carthage, where he has since resided. Part of the time he was in partnership with H. J. Welch, and later with his brother-in-law, Stephen R. Pratt, but has been alone for several years. He married Miss Sarah R. Ackerman, daughter of Lorenzo and Ruth Ackerman. Their only children, Alonzo and Alton, died in their youth. Mr. Francis has been largely interested in real estate of late years. He is a wise counsellor and a true friend.
RICHARD F. NEARY, one of the oldest merchants of the village of Carthage, was born in the town of Wilna in 1831. His parents, Farrel and Margaret Neary, were early settlers near Carthage, and raised a large family of children, who, having reached the years of maturity, have become valuable members of society. Richard spent the early years of his life with his father on the farm. His health failing when about 23 years of age, he went in company with Peter Foley to California, hoping to be benefited by a change of climate. Returning to Carthage just after the close of the late war, much improved in health, he accepted the position of postmaster at Carthage, which was located in the old Farrington House, long since removed, and now the site of H. Radin's store. Until the present time, Mr. Neary has been more or less identified with the business interests of Carthage. For many years he was a partner in the firm of Horr & Neary, and now of the dry goods merchants, Neary & Byrne. He married Miss Eliza Hepp, of Carthage. Mr. Neary is a highly-respected citizen.
ANDREW B. VIRKLER came to Carthage in 1892, and is one of its most enterprising business men, an extensive dealer in butter, cheese and produce. He has been a practical cheese-maker all his life, and built several factories in the West. Of French descent, he was born in the town of Croghan, Lewis county, April 30. 1856, and is the son of John and Barbara Virkler. In 1893 he married Miss Hattie C. Smith, daughter of Walter C. Smith, of Adams, and formerly a teacher in West Carthage public school. Mr. Virkler purposes to make Carthage his future home.
HANNAH C. HULBERT, better known to the present residents of the town of Wilna as "Granny Davis," was a prominent character on account of her extreme old age. Her maiden name was Hannah Christiana Staley. She was of Dutch parentage, and several times married. She once resided in Wyoming, Pa., and moved to Johnstown about the time of the French and Indian Wars of 1756-63. In the Revolution she was supposed to have been captured by the Indians. Her first husband's name was Shove; the second was named Dobson; the third, Davis, and the fourth, Hulbert. She was over 80 when married the last time. Hulbert was a Revolutionary soldier, and, as his widow, she drew a pension for 20 years. She was the mother of 17 children. At the age of 80 she was able to do the work of a strong man. She was a member of the Lutheran Church. She died at the residence of John Nobles, in Wilna, November 29, 1862, and is supposed to have been 115 years of age. She had almost entirely lost her sense of hearing, but when her attorney called on pension business, if the magic word " pension" was spoken in her ear at the top of the voice, her face would lighten up. Thus we see that the love of money remains in the human breast to the end of days, and "Granny Davis" was no exception.
ANTHONY WALSH was born in Ireland, county Mayo. He came to this town in 1832, and was an honest, hard-working man, a shoemaker by trade. He married Mary McManus. This couple were blessed with triplets, in August, 1844. Governor William H. Seward, who was in the village to address a political meeting, the guest of Patrick Stewart, expressed a desire to see them on being informed of the unusual event. He called, in company with the late Hon. Marcus Bickford, and named them after members of his own family: Frances Seward, Cornelia Seward and Harriet Weed. Their mother dying soon after, they were sent to the Catholic Orphan Asylum, at Utica, N. Y; Frances and Cornelia grew into womanhood, the latter now residing in Clinton, N. Y.. Gov. Seward, a few years after naming them, sent each a present of a gold-clasped Catholic Bible and $50 in money. The other children of Anthony Walsh are: Anthony, who served in the late war in the 14th N. Y. Artillery, and was wounded at Spottsylvania; James H. Walsh, who also served in the late war, and is commander of the Carthage G. A. R. Post for 1895, and Mrs. Martin Leach. These all reside in Carthage. Anthony Walsh, Sr., died several years ago. His genial good humor made him many friends.
MRS. HANNAH (PRATT) SMITH was born in Shutesbury, Mass., in 1792. She married James Smith in 1815. They came to Carthage in 1837. Mr. Smith conducted the tannery afterwards operated by Dickerman & Reed on Tannery Island. After accumulating a sufficient competence he retired from business. He died in 1855, aged 65 years. Mrs. Smith survived her husband many years and resided at the homestead at the intersection of School and Church streets, which was destroyed in the great conflagration of 1884. At that time many relics, highly valued, as well as the most of her household goods, were destroyed. Mrs. Smith was a valued and active member of the Baptist church of Carthage, and was well acquainted with its early days. She united in her native town in her 18th year. She died in 1891, aged 99. She retained her memory until the last, but her eye-sight was somewhat impaired. She entertained her grand-children and great-grandchildren with reminiscences of George Washington. Her general knowledge made her an entertaining hostess or guest. The children of Mr. and Mrs. James Smith are: Susan (Mrs. H. G. Potter), Sophia (Mrs. S. S. Davis, of Carthage); James W., of Brooklyn; Julia, Mrs. A. H. Spencer, who died in New York in 1891; Frances M. (Mrs. George A. Lathrop, of New York city); Amelia (Mrs. Theodore Shotwell, of Brooklyn); Augustus M who died in 1861. The descendants of Mrs. Smith are numerous and are universally respected. Francis, a son of Mrs. Lathrop, is an artist of note, and George Parsons Lathrop, another son, the well-known writer, married Miss Rose, daughter of the distinguished Nathaniel Hawthorne.
JOHN L. NORTON was born in Alexandria in 1835, and is the son of John and Pamelia (Gordon) Norton. He received his early education in the common schools, and finished it at the Orleans Academy, at LaFargeville, N. Y. At the early age of 15 he began a clerkship in a store at Rossie, remaining there a year and a half, and then went to Redwood where he accepted a position with Joseph Buckbee, with whom he remained five years. Then he made an engagement with Candee & Winslow, at Watertown, with whom he remained three years. From Watertown he returned to Redwood and bought W. W. Butterfield's interest in the firm of Butterfield & McAllister, when the firm became Norton & McAllister. He remained there during the Civil War and then sold to G. E. McAllister and came to Carthage, in 1866, and started a new store in company with his brother George, but subsequently bought his brother's interest, the latter going west. During the last year of the war he, with a party of friends, visited the track of those armies which put an end to the rebellion. In 1858 Mr. Norton was married to Helen A., daughter of Lawrence DeZeng. They have two children, Adda B., now Mrs. Charles L. Sleight, of Wilkesbarre, Pa., and Lawrence D. Norton. who is his father's valued book keeper and assistant. Mr. Norton is a high degree Mason and universally respected--a wholesome man to have in the town. His interest in social life is evidenced by his activity as a Mason and in his unflagging attention to the cause of education, he having been for several years president of the Board of Education.
LAWRENCE JOSEPH GOODALE, who has resided in the village of Carthage the greater part of his life, was born in Watertown, February 20, 1816. After receiving a liberal education he entered Union College, Schenectady, in 1835. In 1838 he commenced the study of law in the office of Sterling & Bronson at Watertown, and was admitted to the bar in 1840. Soon afterward he came to Carthage to enter upon the practice of his profession. September 1, 1842, he married Isabella, daughter of Patrick Somerville Stewart. In 1842 he formed a partnership with Micah Sterling in Watertown under the name of Sterling & Goodale. Later he entered into a partnership with Joseph Mullin. July 4, 1853, Mr. Goodale established himself as a lumber dealer in New York city, where he also opened a law office. He remained in that city eight years. He returned to Carthage, in 1864 and became the agent of Vincent LeRay de Chaumont, whose affairs have been settled under Mr. Goodale's administration. He represented them for about 30 years. As counselor he has been appointed executor and administrator in the settlement of several estates. Since the organization of the Carthage Savings Bank he has been its president and also a director. He is familiar with the early development of the region about Carthage. Mrs. Goodale died in Carthage, April 30, 1891. She was a lady of decided independence of character, possessing, many excellent qualities, and her decease, after a short illness, was a grief to her friends.
LEWIS CHAMBERS came to Carthage in 1850. Both he and his brother Hiram were carpenters, and took the contract for the first M. E. Church on State street, of which they were official members. Polly, wife of Lewis, was a sister of Christopher Poor, and for over 40 years a resident of Carthage. She died May 12, 1893. Hiram Chambers went to Washington, as a nurse, during the war in 1864. He married Nancy Johnson. Both of the brothers and their families have left a blessed memory.
DEACON JONATHAN OSBORN, on the 11th day of May, 1842, came with his family to North Wilna, where he lived until his death in 1856. He was born at Scotch Plains, N. J., in 1790. In 1815 he was married to Amelia VanDeemen in New York city. The father of both John B. Osborn and Abram VanDeemen served in the war of the American Revolution. Jonathan Osborn's family was as follows: Amelia E., wife of Dr. George Hubbard, deceased; Ann Judson, Mrs. Slater; Spencer C., Abram C., a distinguished clergyman of the Baptist church; Gen. Thomas W., and Mary E., deceased wife of Dr. Samuel Merrill. Jonathan Osborn was a man of much learning and broad information. His habits of thought tended toward ecclesiastical subjects and literature, and from his superiority in these he acquired prominence in church circles. In 1817 he united with the Baptist church at Scotch Plains, and a few years after was ordained deacon. He was elected to minor offices, both in New Jersey and Jefferson county. Directly under his guidance and influence the North Wilna Baptist church was organized, and through many years he was its main reliance and support. In all ways, in integrity, morally and intellectually, he was among the foremost men in the eastern part of the county.
DR. HORATIO S. HENDEE, for many years a resident of Carthage, was born in Greig, Lewis county, in 1829. He graduated from Castleton (Vt.) Medical College. In the summer of 1860 he visited England and France, and spent some time in Edinburg, Scotland, and at Paris. In September, 1862, he was appointed acting surgeon of volunteer artillery, and was assigned to the 15th New York Heavy Artillery. In 1872, while residing in Carthage, he was elected Member of Assembly, and served with ability. His first wife was Miss Sarah E. Myers, daughter of James Myers, of Denmark, who died in Carthage. He married, in 1872, Miss Ella, daughter of James Ward, of Carthage. Two children were born to them. His present wife has a daughter, Miss Ruth. Dr. Hendee died in Lowville in 1892, aged 63 years.
ISAIAH WOOD.--Not to be lacking in any modern development, Carthage has her own centenarian. Mr. Isaiah Wood was born in 1794, and his 100th birthday was commemorated at the residence of his son, July 21, 1894, by kindly visits from many appreciative friends. Mr. Wood came of good old Scotch parentage, and seems to have inherited the sturdy characteristics of that race. His parents removed from Albany county shortly before his birth to Canetuck, Canada, 12 miles above Brockville, where his boyhood was spent. Returning to this country with his parents, they settled in St. Lawrence county, and there he grew to man's estate and married. He lived in the vicinity of Hammond and Morristown until 1857, when he moved to Michigan. After four years he came to Deer River, to reside near his son, Mr. John B. Wood, now of Carthage, who from that time has made him the recipient of the most constant care. His health is fair, though sight and hearing are much impaired. His mind is yet bright and active, but he is very deaf.
DAVID D. WHITAKER has been a resident of Carthage over 40 years, having opened a jewelry store in 1851. He is one of the few remaining who were thus early identified with the earlier business of this place. He was born in Holland Patent in 1831. He built the block he now occupies, which is near the C. & A. track, and stands on the site of the old Strong Hotel. Mrs. Whitaker's maiden name was Martha N. Hubbard, daughter of Samuel Hubbard, of Champion. They have two daughters, Mrs. Geo. Blake, of Carthage, and Mrs. W. E. Major, at Brooklyn. Mr. Whitaker is a skillful work-man, and esteemed by the public.
JOSEPH CROWNER was born in Champion, near Limburg Forks, in 1809. He was the son of Philip Crowner. Joseph Crowner built the first frame house on the Alexandria road, 55 years ago. At one time he owned Tannery Island, and manufactured pumps, ploughs and furnaces. After raising a large family he died, January 8, 1839, aged, 85 years. He was one of the charter members of the Masonic lodge.
ZELOTES SIMS has been a business man of Carthage for over 20 years. He was born in Antwerp in 1835, and is the son of Robert and Jane Sims, and one of four children. He was a partner with J. B. Wood in the grocery business. He conducted the Coburn mill in West Carthage one year, and is now proprietor of a grocery store near the depot. He married Eliza A. Webster, of South Hammond, who died January 2, 1894, aged 54 years. He has two sons, George and Arthur.
SANFORD D. HUNT has been a resident of Jefferson county nearly all his life. He was born in Rodman, the son of H. S. Hunt, one of the oldest residents of that town, who was at one time post-master at Rodman. He married Harriet Bailey, of that town. They had four sons in the Union army: Sanford D., the subject of this sketch, who was an orderly sergeant; DeWitt C., who served in the 35th N. Y. Vol. Infantry; Horace S., also of the 35th, and its esteemed historian; and Theodore L. Sanford D. came to Carthage from Antwerp in 1876. He is a tailor, secretary of Carthage Masonic Lodge and Chapter, and past commander of Steele Post, G. A. R. Mr. Hunt is a meritorious citizen, and himself and his brothers performed good service to their country during its hour of greatest need.
LYLE B. BENCE, son of Nicholas and Susan, was born in Wilna in 1835. He received the usual education in the common schools and afterwards attended the best schools at Carthage, and one year in the Antwerp Academy. He was a school-teacher in this northern region when he entered the store of Horace Hooker, where he was a trusted clerk for seven years. He went to New York city and became a commercial traveller for his brother. Subsequently he went to Chicago and became a broker in cigars. In 1891 he returned to Carthage, residing upon his farm, and removed in 1892 to the village of Carthage, where he is now an honored resident, having inherited a comfortable fortune from his brother, who died in 1889. Mr. Bence served in the 186th N. Y. Vol. Infantry.
SAMUEL J DAVIS came to Carthage from Utica in 1832. He was the son of William Davis, and was of Welsh parentage. He was chosen to fill many offices of trust in the village of Carthage, was deputy sheriff six years, supervisor one term and Member of Assembly in 1846-47. In 1833 he was married to Laura Thayer, the daughter of Benjamin Thayer, who came to Wilna in 1824. The children are as follows: Mary Ella, deceased; William, Emily J. (Mrs. William Cooper, of Felts Mills), Mary Ella (Mrs. Norman Foot Mills, of Lowville), and Samuel J . Davis, Jr., deceased. Mr. Davis was an estimable citizen, an enterprising, upright man. Although a straightforward Democrat, he was liberal in his views and kind and obliging. Mrs. Davis survives her husband at the age of 82, a remarkably intelligent lady, as her husband was an unusually intelligent man.
JAMES H. DAWLEY was born in the State of Maine in 1824, the son of William Dawley, who removed from Montgomery county, N. Y., in 1819, to the town of Wilna. James H. was brought up on a farm, and had the benefits of the common school education of his native town, attending for one term the academy of Prof. Wilbur at Carthage. He taught school for several years. In 1847 he married Miss Orphelia M. Olds, daughter of John Olds, of North Wilna. They have had three children born to them, two boys and one daughter. In 1878 he removed from North Wilna to Carthage. He has held the office of justice of the peace in the town of Wilna for 33 years, and has been police justice of the village of Carthage for the past 12 years. Mr. Dawley took an active part in enlisting men for the Union army and has in many ways shown himself to be an honorable, high-minded, conscientious citizen. He has never been defeated when a candidate for office. When last named as candidate for justice of the peace, he declined to run, con- fining his time to the discharge of his duties as police justice.
JOHN CALEB FULTON was born in the town of Wilna in 1843, and was the son of James and Caroline (Nichols) Fulton, pioneers of that neighborhood. John was brought up on a farm. He attended the Lowville Academy, and afterward taught 17 terms. He read law with Starbuck & Sawyer, of Watertown, and was admitted to the bar in October, 1868. He was married, November 3, 1869, to Miss M. L. Woodward, of Philadelphia, N. Y. Three of their five children are living. Mr. Fulton came to Carthage in 1878 and entered into a law partnership with Mr. Forbes, and after a few months became a partner of Hon. A. E. Kilby, which firm was dissolved at the expiration of three years. Mr. Fulton practiced law in Carthage until his death, September 8, 1889, and was considered a wise counselor and faithful friend. His widow and family reside in Carthage.
COL. ORLIN HOLCOMB was born in the town of Champion in 1815. He is a son of Lyman and Sally (Dorwin) Holcomb, who came from Granby, Conn., in 1789. In 1840 he was married in Carthage to Maria Macomber, daughter of John M. Macomber, of Evans Mills, and widow of Mr. Abel P. Collins, of South Carolina. Mr. Collins left one daughter, Helen, now the wife of Hiram Houghton, of Carthage. Previous to his marriage, Mr. Holcomb was engaged in the tanning business, just west of Champion village, and subsequently resumed the same line of business at Carthage, entering into partnership with Ambrose H. Spencer. They owned and conducted the tannery on what is known as Tannery Island, as well as a general store. At the end of three years the partnership was dissolved. Mr. Holcomb then moved to Buffalo and dealt in ready-made clothing, but returned in a short time to Carthage. In 1867, in company with Elijah Horr, was established the Horr & Holcomb Bank in Carthage, which was a reliable and popular institution for 10 years. On the death of Mr. Horr it was discontinued in 1876, all its indebtedness having been liquidated. Mr. Holcomb once more turned his attention to the tanning business, and bought out Noyes Tuttle in West Carthage, and finally sold to Thomas Revell and L. H. Dunlap. His son, Henry O. Holcomb, died in 1854, aged 10 years. Mrs. O. Holcomb died February 1, 1886, aged 71 years, and was a noble, Christian woman. In 1887 he married Miss Cordelia Tamblin, of Watertown, since which time he has resided in that city. They have one child, Ida Grace, aged four years. Mr. Holcomb is a well-remembered citizen, better known than many of his contemporaries. He is past 80 years of age, but is seen upon our streets nearly every day.
JONATHAN WOOD came from Oneida county in 1833, settling in the northern part of Wilna, at what is now known as Wood's Mills, where he built a grist and saw-mill, the place taking its name from him. He was proprietor of these mills for many years, dying there in 1879, aged 87 years, He married Miss Betsey Davidson, and one of his sons (Franklin), was his assistant in the mill. He was supervisor of Wilna for one term, assessor for many years, and a justice of the peace. The postoffice at Wood's Mills is known as "Woods."
WALTER N. WRAPE was born in Carthage, August 7, 1867. He is the son of Patrick and Angelia (Mathews) Wrape. His grandfather, Pitt Mathews, was a business man of Carthage in its early days, and his quaint good humor and worthy traits of character are still remembered by the older residents. Walter Wrape has been for several years the trusted bookkeeper of the First National Bank, and cashier for the Carthage Savings Bank. He is also secretary of the water commissioners of the village of Carthage, and made Noble Grand of Carthage Lodge No. 365, I. O. O. F., for 1895. This rising young man has many friends and the confidence of his townspeople. He married Miss Myra Cowan, of the town of Wilna.
THE COULSTON BOYS.--In speaking of the fact that Maj. Jno. A. Haddock, of Watertown, and Hon. Charles L. MacArthur, of Troy, were, in 1839 and 1840, apprentice compositors in the "Carthagenian " office at Carthage, no mention has heretofore been made of the "Coulston boys," who were in the office with these two older ones just before they left Carthage to engage in the newspaper business upon a larger scale. The Coulston boys were the sons of a leading builder and carpenter, who died leaving a widow and these two boys. They were a united and very intelligent family. The boys learned the art of printing as the foundation of their life-long vocation--journalism. Edwin was one of the proprietors of the Utica Herald at the time of its birth, and remained with that paper some time. He afterwards went to New York, and was successful as a faithful worker upon the daily press of that great city. He died some 10 years since. Henry W, was born in Carthage in 1827. He received a good English education, and in 1852 was taken upon Mr. Greeley's New York Tribune. He was a trusted reporter, and his straightforward honesty soon attracted the attention of that veteran editor, who often sent him upon important missions. In 1862 he was sent to the front as war correspondent, and did valiant service as such until the conflict ended. After over 50 years of work he is still active and vigorous, and much beloved by all associates, old or young. He has been furnishing New Jersey news for the World, Tribune, Times, Sun and other New York and New Jersey papers, and at 65 is hale, sound and hearty, a hard worker, and a friend to all newspaper men.
JOHN SMITH was one of the oldest and best remembered citizens of Wilna. He came from New Jersey, and located on a farm about 1823, on road 63. The old stone house which he built still stands, around which cluster many pleasant memories of the generous hospitality of the host and of his good wife. John Smith married Susanna Ryneer, and they had 11 children, Larissa, Eveline, Julia, Elmira, Madeline, Susanna, John, Jr., Alonzo and Joseph reached maturity. John Smith died in the old house, aged 84 years. The children of John Smith married, and became prominent citizens in the town of Wilna.
MRS. MARIANNA SMITH, widow of Alonzo Smith, was the daughter of Jean Disere Balmont, who was one of the original Castorland settlers. He was born in the suburbs of San Antoinne, Paris, about 1776, and witnessed some of the awful scenes at Paris, when 1,400 of the best blood of France passed under the guillotine in one month. He came to America in 1796, and in 1797 he was followed by his father and mother. There were only 41 buildings in Utica when he passed through that city. He took up land at Utica, and remained there his first year. In 1798 he came to Castorland, where so many French emigrants had settled. Previous to the removal of the Balmont family from Paris they were well-to-do people, and had means of their own to be comfortable wherever they might have settled. But a residence of several years at Castorland nearly exhausted their means, and in 1803 Mr. Balmont came to Carthage. His aged mother died in 1802, and the friendship of the Indians who were then remaining in the county was evidenced by their attendance at the funeral and taking a respectful interest in the burial. One of the Balmont family was an intrepid traveller, being the first man who ever ascended Mt. Blanc, for which he received due credit in the history of that world.known mountain. The first mill ever brought to Castorland was brought from France by this same J. V. Balmont. Noadiah Hubbard, of Champion, a contemporary of Balmont, was known to travel from Champion to Castorland to get his corn ground in that mill. The sufferings of the people of Castorland, most of them Parisiennes, coming into that almost unbroken wilderness, were often pitiable, and particularly hard upon the women and children. Many tales are told of homesickness and destitution. These Castorland emigres, for tea used the "evanroot," and for coffee they used the plant known as "maiden hair." Their main dependence for meat was upon the game they could kill. The mill named above could only grind corn to a consistency which the old settlers designated as "samp." The children of Mr. and Mrs. Alonzo Smith are John D., Alexis L. and Louie A. They are all living. Mrs. Smith resides on the farm where her husband, Alonzo, died, January 4, 1892, after 40 years of happy married life.
GEORGE O'LEARY was born in Skibbereen, in Western Ireland, in 1813. His father was a shoemaker. At 19 years of age he came to America, via Quebec. The first work he did was for old Joshua Babcock, at Felts Mills, father of H. H. Babcock, of Watertown. In 1836 he married Alice Wood. They reared five children. In 1837 they removed to Carthage, and established a shop for manufacturing shoes. He was prospered, remaining three years, when he removed to Sterlingville, where he remained 14 years, being postmaster and justice of the peace and deputy sheriff. After his long residence there he removed to Carthage, where he was a police justice, and has resided many years. He is quite hale and hearty in his 81st year--a genial old gentleman. Miss Antoinette Sterling, the distinguished singer, writes from England that she received her first inclinations towards literature and voice culture from Mr. O'Leary--a most graceful tribute from a lady whose musical ability has found recognition both in America and in England.
HUGH DUNLAVA, a soldier of the War of 1812, came to Carthage at an early day. Thomas, his son, and one of seven children, was for many years a reliable, skillful work-man in McCollom's nail works, and other machine shops of Carthage. He married Melissa Butts, of Wilna, and they reared five children. Both are still residents of Carthage, he at the advanced age of 83, and quite feeble. Edward, another son of Hugh, followed the same business as his brother Thomas, and served in the late war in Company I, 94th Regiment. He was accidentally killed while at work. Edward's widow survives him.
MRS. ANDREW B. CARTER, a native of Wilna, is descended, upon the father's side, from the Keyes family, her father having been William Henry Keyes. On her mother's side she is descended from the old Redfield-Sykes-Mansfield families, all of them much respected and well-remembered citizens of Watertown. Her husband, Mr. A. B. Carter, has been for many years a messenger of the American Express company, and is a native of Watertown. The old homestead was burned in 1885, the year President Benjamin Harrison was elected, and Mrs. Carter resolved to build a log-house, on the site of the old Keyes house, commemorative of Gen. Harrison's election. Her dwelling is unique and commodious. She is a lady of much refinement and ability, and her mind is well stored with historical and local incidents. The late William Wirt Sykes was her relative, which makes her a connection, by marriage, with the distinguished Olive Logan.
JOHN JAMES DEVOIS emigrated from Paris. France, with his wife and one son Francis, about 1797, and located at Beaver River, Lewis county, N. Y., where he died about 1803. In 1808 Francis Devois came to this town with his mother and located on a farm. He married Margaret Daley by whom he had eight children. Charles died on the old homestead March 8, 1892. His mother, Mrs. Devois, died in February, 1893, aged over 80 years. His second wife Maria (Fulton) Devois, died March 2, 1895, aged 40 years.
AUGUSTUS KESLER has for many years been closely identified with the growth of the village and its business interests. He was born in Carthage, July 22, 1857. His father was a boot and shoe merchant, and two sons George and Augustus, succeeded him. The latter retired and purchased the L. H. Mills saw-mill property, which was afterwards destroyed by fire. He soon rebuilt and still owns it, manufacturing large quantities of lumber. He built and placed upon the river the steamboat L. J. Goodale, which is used as a pleasure-boat in the summer. By his determination and perseverance he was instrumental in having a law passed declaring Fish and Alder creeks on Beaver river a public highway for floating logs. These streams had been previously controled by one party, who required a consideration for the accommodation of floating down logs. Mr. Kesler has been largely interested in building and dealing in real estate. He has erected 51 private residences and one hotel. He was twice elected trustee of the village of Carthage, serving four years, and has been water commissioner.
LEVI CLARK HUBBARDwas born in Champion, October 5, 1836. His father, after whom he was named, was one of the early settlers of Champion. His mother was Polly R. Clark. They had seven children. L. C. Hubbard, as a boy, had a great desire to receive an education and become a professional man. But his father with a large family could not bestow the advantage he coveted. The old adage in this case proved true, "Where there's a will there's a way," and Levi Clark, through many discouragements, cultivated his love for books and developed a talent for writing, becoming a contributor for newspapers, sometimes in the form of verse. His mother died in Lewis county in 1846. In 1857 he married Harriet L. Gilbert, of Farmersville, Cattaraugus county, N. Y., who died within a year. When the War of the Rebellion broke out, he was active in raising volunteers for the 35th Regiment in Carthage. The hardships of a soldier's life and a disability contracted in that climate rendered him finally unfit for field duty, and he was appointed messenger in charge of the mail, which position he held until his discharge, June 11, 1863. He was then married to Jerusha M. Cooley, by whom he had one daughter, Miss Pearl, who has kept house for her father since her mother's death, May 12, 1886. Mr. Hubbard entered Albany Medical College in 1880, and graduated with the class in 1882 with a high rating, receiving his degree of M. D., also A. B. He was elected poet of his class. He is now a resident of Carthage and practicing his profession.
HORACE HOOKER, for many years a prominent merchant and leading citizen of Carthage (where he was born in 1824), was the son of Seth and Calista (Nimocks) Hooker. His brother Ralph was his partner for several years. The father, Seth, came from New Britain, Conn., to Carthage about 1817, and opened a general store and was also post- master. He kept the toll-gate on the bridge and was an inventive genius. He died in 1882, and his wife in 1888. Horace and the rest of the family were born in the old house near the bridge, and later resided in the well-remembered stone house which formerly stood on the site of the Hotel Elmhirst. Horace married Ellen A., daughter of Rev. Elisha Sawyer, who died in 1868, leaving three daughters. In 1376 he married Pamelia, widow of William C. LeFever, of Carthage. At the time of his death Mr. Hooker was the oldest merchant in Carthage, antedating Mr. Frederick one year. He was an active and highly respected citizen, holding many positions of trust in the town. He died in West Carthage November 12, 1891, aged 67 years, leaving a memory which is free from reproach, and the world is better for his having lived in it. His widow and three daughters survive him.
NELSON D. FERGUSON, M. D., a resident of Carthage almost continuously for more than four decades, has since early manhood been identified with its social, business and political interests. He is a physician and surgeon of acknowledged ability, and considered authority in difficult cases. In the fall of 1861 he entered the army as a surgeon, and for more than three years was in active field service. Was taken prisoner and in Libby Prison for four days, at the expiration of which time he was exchanged. For 16 days he was in charge of the prison hospital at Richmond. He is a past commander of Steele Post of Carthage. In 1865 he was Member of Assembly, and for three years was county clerk. He and his amiable wife are highly respected and have many friends both in Carthage and at their summer home on the St. Lawrence.
FERNANDO HUBBARD, for many years a merchant of Carthage, is the son of Heman Hubbard. Fernando's paternal grandmother reached the extreme age of 104, and died in West Carthage in 1877. He married Miss Kate Harris in 1861, now deceased. Mr. Hubbard has held many responsible positions in Carthage and is an enterprising citizen.
HENRY J. ERVIN,son of Durgas Ervin, was born in Lewis county and brought up on a farm. He served in the Mississippi squadron over two years. They were in several engagements at Vicksburg and up the Red River. At the close of the war he was honorably discharged, and soon after came to Carthage, where he has been chief of police, constable, and held other minor offices. In 1876 he was married to Miss Adalaide Stillman, and they have four children.
PATRICK VILLARS was born in Ireland, and has been a resident of Carthage about 20 years. He was a former resident of Antwerp, where he engaged in farming. He is with his son Edward in the drug business in Carthage, and they are among the most respected citizens of that place.
ZEBINA CHAFFEE, son of Clifford, was born in Westminster, Vt., and about 1818 or 1819 came to Wilna and located at Natural Bridge. He was a carpenter by trade, and assisted in building the Bonaparte house. He died in 1850. He married Lucy Nutting, of Westminster, Vt., and they had six children. Ira V., his son, was born in Natural Bridge, June 25, 1821. He married Eliza, daughter of Stiles Brown, of Diana, Lewis county, in 1850. Four children were born to them.
CALVIN COWAN, son of Isaac, was born in Lanesborough, Mass., and when young located in Lewis county, N. Y., where he married Abi Weed, of Lowville. In 1828 he came to the town of Wilna, where he remained but a few years. After the death of his wife he resided with his son, Herman, until his decease. He had eight children. Herman Cowan, his son, was born in Depauville, April 1, 1819. In 1846 he married Almira M. Frasier, of Wilna. His wife died in 1888. They had eight children. Mr. Cowan married, second, Mrs. Margaretta H. Townsend, and they still reside in Wilna.
CRANSON GATES located in the town of Wilna about 1830, settling on a farm, where he remained a few years, when he removed to the farm now occupied by W. J. Scott, and here resided until his death. He owned the saw-mill known as the Gates mill. He reared a family of seven children. Julius K. was born January 11, 1836. He was the first to enlist from the town of Wilna, in April, 1861, and served in Company B, 35th N. Y. Volunteers. He is now a resident of Carthage.
THOMAS BURNS, from Ireland, located in Carthage in 1829. About 1831 he removed to Lewis county, and two years later returned to Wilna, where he died in 1880. He followed the occupation of farming. His wife, Catharine Gormley, bore him 12 children. His son, James W., was born November 16, 1837. In 1864 he enlisted in Company A, 186th Regt. N. Y. Volunteers, and was discharged June 2, 1865. In 1866 he married Patience, daughter of Isaac Blanchard. Mr. Thomas Burns has always resided in the town, engaged in the lumber trade.
TRUMAN CROWNER, son of Peter, was born in Washington county, N. Y. He married Polly Clintsman, and located in Lewis county, where he reared a family of 10 sons and three daughters. About 1830 he removed to Wilna, and located near the centre of the town, where he remained until his death. States Crowner, his son, married Lorinda M., daughter of Orlo Stanard, in 1852.
JACOB CLEARWATER, son of Daniel, was born in Marbletown, Ulster county, and about 1836 came to the town of Wilna, about 1842 he located upon the farm, on road 79. He married Hester Sheley, of Johnstown, N. Y., by whom he had five sons and two daughters. He married Helen, daughter of V. P. Hanson, of Theresa, and they had one son, Victor H.
MILTON H. CARTER, was born in Lewis county, N. Y., in 1807. In 1837, with his wife, Sarah, he came to Wilna, where he resided until 1848, when he removed to his farm. Here he resided until 1866, when he removed to Denmark, Lewis county, where he died in 1874. He was supervisor of Wilna in 1845, and also held other town offices. He had a family of eight children, six of whom are living. Mr. Carter enlisted in Company E, 20th N. Y. Cavalry, in 1863, served as quartermaster-sergeant, and was discharged in the fall of 1864. His son, Norris M. Carter, was a prominent surgeon in the army, now deceased.
JOHN JOHNSON removed from Oneida county and located in Carthage, where he resided about 16 years. He was a moulder and iron worker by trade. Of his seven children, John B. was for many years a merchant in Carthage; Julia A. married J. P. Hodgkins, of Carthage, and now lives in Brooklyn. N. Y.; Epaphroditus now resides near Carthage. The latter was born April 3, 1814, and in 1838 married Martha L. Gates, and settled in Sterlingville, where he worked at the moulding and iron-working trade. Upon the death of his wife, about 11 months after their marriage, he removed to Wilna, where he married Cornelia, daughter of Rev. Harvey DeWolf, and was located upon a farm for five years. Mr. Johnson enlisted in Company E. 16th Pennsylvania Cavalry, January 4, 1863, and was discharged November 28, 1865. After an absence of several years in Pennsylvania, he returned to Carthage and married the widow of John Grannis, now deceased.
NELSON W. LANPHEAR, son of Jeremiah and Fanny (Fulton) Lanphear, was born in the town of Wilna, June 16, 1841. In August, 1863, he enlisted in Company A, 20th N. Y. Cavalry, and was discharged in May, 1865, from Balfour Hospital. In November, 1870, he married Sarah M., daughter of Abram and Samantha (Loomis) Smith, and settled on the homestead, where he resided until 1889, when he removed to Carthage village. He has three children: Herbert S., Fanny S. and Fred.
GUY E. PENNIMAN, son of Zuriel was born in the town of Rutland January 4 1828. In 1850 he married Madeline M., daughter of John Smith, of Wilna, and located in this town, on road 75, where he now resides. He has two children, Guy who resides in Carthage, and Carrie (Mrs. Dexter Crowner). Zurial Penniman came from Keene, N. H., in 1815.
SOLOMON ASHCRAFT came from Guilford Vt., to the town of Wilna, about 1850 and located at Natural Bridge, where he engaged in the manufacture of broom handles. He died in 1879, aged 71 years. His son Eugene S., married Amelia Ann, daughter of Philip Covey. Mr. Ashcraft is a carpenter by trade. When 19 years of age, while hunting in the town of Vernon, Vt., he sustained an accident to his foot, which necessitated its amputation.
LEVI WOOD, son of Joshua A., was born in LeRay, September 2,1826. He learned the moulder's trade in Watertown, and in 1851 married Lucinda M. Hotchkins, and located in Carthage. He served one year in Company D, 10th N. Y. Heavy Artillery. He married, second, Mrs. Catharine Tripp. His first wife bore him two children.
JOHN W. OWEN, son of William and Sarah Owen, was born in Felts Mills, October 28, 1830. He attended the common schools until about 13 years of age, and then entered the Academy at Canandaigua, where he remained four years. For two years he practiced medicine in Avon, N. Y., and subsequently travelled and lectured on hygiene. In 1852 he located in Carthage, where he is now in practice. He married, first, Elvira Monroe, and second, Ellen Burke.
EBER MAYHUE came from Canada to this town in 1858, and located on a farm. He followed the dual occupation of blacksmith and farmer. He married Susannah, daughter of John Smith, by whom he had a daughter, Florence O., who married Dan Sterling, and has two children, Julia and Eber.
GEORGE GILBERT, son of Berzilla and Asenath Gilbert, was born December 18, 1828, in the town of Northampton, N. Y. His ancestors were of French and English descent, and his grandparents were natives of Connecticut. Both of his grandfathers served in the Revolutionary War. He was admitted to the bar in June, 1853, and was admitted to practice in the district courts of the United States in 1862. June 30, 1854, Mr. Gilbert located in Carthage village. He served as town clerk and justice of the peace one term. From 1861 his influence was with the Republican party. July 7, 1875, Mr. Gilbert married Hattie C. McAllister, daughter of Harvel McAllister, of Stowe, Vt., by whom be had four children. Mr. Gilbert was a prominent citizen of the town, and was identified with the principal enterprises for its commercial advancement. It was through his efforts that the requisite legislation was secured in favor of the construction of the last lock and dam upon what is known as the "Black River improvement," which was really the completion of the Black River Canal. He was vice-president, secretary, director, and general manager of the Black River & St. Lawrence River Railway Company, whose interests were afterwards merged in the Carthage and Adirondack Railway Company, and was a member of the first board of directors in the latter organization. He died at his home, in Carthage, after a brief illness, March 19, 1890. He was a prominent member of the Presbyterian Church.
DAVID REYNOLDS, son of John, was born in Sligo, Ireland, and about 1830 immigrated with his parents to this country, and located in the town of Alexandria. He married Lois B., daughter of William Holmes, of Alexandria, in 1848, and located at Barnes Settlement, and here remained until 1860, when he removed to Wilna, and bought the farm once occupied by Madam de Ferriet, and here resided until his death in 1881.
JACOB BLISS was born in Hartwick, Otsego county, N. Y., June 15, 1818, and in 1827 came with his parents to Watertown. He was married three times, first to Permelia Tallman, who bore him two children, and died in 1852; second to Almira Derby, who bore him one child, and died in 1856; and third to Margaret Kilmer, who bore him one child. He bas been a machinist since 1844, and now resides in Utica. He carried on a machine shop in Bellville, Canada, six years, and in Watertown eight years. Orlando T. Bliss, son of Jacob, served in the 10th N. Y. H. A., and was promoted to captain.
C. C. LAKE, son of Jesse, was born in Genesee county, N. Y., May 8, 1838. In 1862 he removed with his wife to this town, and located at Natural Bridge, where he engaged in carpentering. August 17, 1864, he enlisted in Co. A, 186th N. Y. Vols., and was discharged June 13, 1865. He participated in the battle of Petersburg. He has been justice of the peace several years, and is now in the manufacturing business.
MOSES C. MERRILL, son of Moses, was born in Connecticut, and about 1806 removed to the town of Champion, where he married Philena, daughter of Abel and Elizabeth Crandall, and settled on a farm. He was a deacon in the Baptist church for many years, and died in 1838. His wife died in 1855. He had a family of 15 children, 13 of whom attained mature years. Moses L. Merrill, his son, was born in Champion in 1811. Moses had two sons, Erwin M. and Samuel L. In October, 1861, Erwin M. enlisted as second lieutenant in Co. I, 94th N. Y. Vols., and resigned September 13, 1862. In 1864 he was commissioned captain of Co. K, 17th Regt. U. S. Col. Inf., and was mustered out April 25, 1866. Dr. Samuel Merrill in 1861 commenced the study of medicine with Dr. G. N. Hubbard. In 1864 he entered the army as a contract surgeon, and was located at Nashville, Tenn. He graduated at Nashville in 1865, and in May entered the 17th Regt. U. S. Col. Inf. as assistant surgeon. He then came to Carthage and engaged in the drug business with his brother, E. M. In 1877 he removed to Mannsville, and remained 10 years, when he returned to Carthage where he now resides. He married first, Mary E. Osborn, by whom he had three children, one of whom is living, Mrs. Foster Wilcox, of Utica. N. Y. He married for his second wife Ellen E. Brown, of Mannsville. Erwin M. Merrill married Ellen M. Gates, of Gouverneur, by whom he had seven children. His wife died in 1888. He is engaged in the drug business in Carthage.
HARRY DAVIS removed from Saratoga county, N. Y., to the town of Pamelia with his mother, about 1812, and there lived until about 1838, when he removed to the town of Philadelphia, and settled in Sterlingville. He drove stage from Watertown to Sterlingville and Antwerp, and was well known in that locality. He married Martha C. Foster, by whom he has had four children, three of whom are living, viz.: George N. of Carthage, and James H. and Martha F. (Mrs. Martin De Tamble), of Carthage. James H. married Ida A. Van Amber, and they have had three children, one of whom, Hattie L., is living.
JOSEPH MICK, son of Michael, came to Wilna from New Jersey, about 1829. He was a moulder, and worked in the foundry, and also purchased and worked the farm now occupied by George Hosford. He married Alice, daughter of Thomas Gustin, and they had three children.
JOEL B. HURLBURT, son of Josiah, was born October 20, 1840. He married, first, Lucena, daughter of Nicholas Mealos, of Antwerp, in 1860, by whom he had three children. For his second wife he married Cora, daughter of Wesley Blanchard, of Diana, and they have two children. In August, 1862, Mr. Hurlburt enlisted in Co. C, 10th N. Y. H. A., and in 1863 was discharged for disability. In 1870 he came to Natural Bridge . In 1875 he erected a small building, and opened a grocery and meat market. In 1877 he built the store he now occupies, and in 1878 built the Hurlburt House. In 1888 he erected the opera house. In politics he has always been a Democrat.
WILLIAM H. DELMORE, son of Thomas, was born in Croghan, Lewis county, June 8, 1858. He worked upon a farm and attended school until 1872, when he came to Carthage, and opened a meat market in company with John Pittock. He was also in the grocery business five years. In 1885 he bought the Cold Spring Brewery, which was burned in 1888. In 1887-88-89 he served as supervisor of the town, was re-elected for the term of 1890, and in 1889 was elected president of the village of Carthage. October 17, 1876, he married Ellen O'Connor, and they have two children. In 1887 he built the Delmore block, one of the finest buildings in Carthage. He is largely interested in real estate and in the prosperity of the village.
H. D. BINGLE, M. D., a native of Germany, came to America with his parents when a youth, and located in Naumburg, Lewis county. He was educated in the district School and Lowville Academy, and in 1877, when 21 years of age, came to Carthage and commenced the study of medicine with Dr. N. D. Ferguson. He graduated from Dartmouth College in 1881. In 1882 he located in Denmark, in 1883 in Deer River and in 1886 in Carthage, where he is now in practice. In 1889 he married Minnie C., daughter of W. R. Thompson, of Carthage.
CHARLES S. DRURY, son of Charles H., was born in Canton, St. Lawrence county, in 1856. He graduated from the University of Vermont at Burlington in 1880, and the same year commenced the practice of his profession at Great Bend, in the town of Champion. In April, 1883, he located at Natural Bridge, where he now resides. He married Addie M., daughter of Sidney Morrison, of Winooski, Vt., and they have one daughter, Vera B., born September 29, 1884.
GRANSON LEWIS married Merab N. Chaffee, daughter of Zebina Chaffee, who came from Vermont. Mr. Lewis located on a farm, and here he kept a hotel. He had five children, viz.: Nelson, Emeline, Hendrickson, Columbus and Lucia A., of whom two are living, Columbus, in Oakland, Cal., and Lucia A., (Mrs. John R. Washburn), wife of the superintendent of the county house.
H. K. LAMPHEAR, son of Jeremiah, was born August 1, 1838. In 1860 he married Achsah C. Loomis, daughter of Wilson, of Champion. In August, 1864, he enlisted in Co. A, 186th N. Y. Vols., and was discharged in June, 1865. He has two children, Wilson L. and Lillian A.
PETER CROWNER, son of Truman, married Susan, daughter of William Adams, of Antwerp, and located on a farm. He had born to him seven children. viz.: Amyr, who enlisted in Co. I. 14th N. Y. H. A., and was killed in battle at Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864; Mucious, Truman A., Hubert B., Marion, Louise E. and Byron (deceased). Peter Crowner died January 13, 1865. His widow married Joel Crowner.
JOHN I. PASSENGER came from Albany county, N. Y., to Wilna among the early settlers. He was well known throughout the county, and was said to have been the first who laid out the frame of a barn with a square rule He had born to him 12 children. James, his son married Louisa, daughter of David Whinney. He had two children, viz.: Nettie C. (Mrs. James J. Wilson) and Sherman W. Peter Passenger, son of John I., served in the late war in the 4th Michigan Cavalry, and was one of the company which captured Jeff. Davis at the close of the war. Diantha Passenger married Charles Ward, who enlisted in Co. F. 193d N. Y. Vols., March 6, 1865, and was discharged January 18. 1866. Mr. Ward was a pensioner, and died February 3, 1887. Mrs. Passenger died March 7, 1875.
JOHN FARR, son of John, came from Pennsylvania to the town of Wilna at an early day, located in Carthage village, and engaged in making iron for Mr. LeRay. He married Susan McClain, by whom he had six sons and six daughters. V. L., his son, who resides in the village of Carthage, where he was born, married Abby J. Allen. Mr. V. L. Farr enlisted in Co. B, 35th Regt. N. Y. Vols., in 1861, was wounded and discharged the same year. He re-enlisted in Co. E, 20th N. Y. Cav., in 1863, and was discharged in 1865.
JOHN I. VAN ANTWERP came from Johnstown to Wilna, and located at Natural Bridge where he lived a few years, when he removed to the farm now occupied by George Van Antwep, and here remained until his death. Peter, his eldest son, married Esther A., daughter of Calvin Cowan, and died on the farm. His widow married Joseph Hastings.
LEWIS LAMPHEAR came to the town of Wilna at an early day and settled on the farm now owned by L. G. Stanard. Jeremiah Lamphear, son of Lewis, married Fannie, daughter of Caleb Fulton, and settled on a farm in Wilna, and where he resided until his death. Of his family of eight children three are living, viz.: Nelson W. and Hiram K. in this town, and Simeon F., in Crystal Springs, Yates county.
BENJAMIN G. HALL came from Deerfield, Oneida county to Wilna about 1810, and settled on a farm on road 44. He reared a family of eight children. William, son of Luther, son of Benjamin, enlisted in Co. K, 20th N. Y. Cav., in 1863, and was mustered out in 1865.
ELISHA FULTON, son of Caleb, was born in 1823. He married Angelica Clearwater, and settled on the old homestead. He had five children: Maria L. (Mrs. Charles Devois deceased), Sedate H., who married Eugene Lewis; Joseph E. and Clark A. He was a farmer, and died in November, 1886.
ORLO STANARD came from Saybrook, Conn., and thence to Wilna in 1812, locating near what was known as the " Checkered House," where he built a shop and engaged in carpentering. He also built and run several saw-mills, and bought and occupied the farms now owned by his sons George and La Fayette. He married Lurena Griffin, whose father, Enoch, was one of the first settlers of the town. La Fayette and George Stanard, their sons, live in Wilna. They had five children.
THOMAS HASTINGS came from Massachusetts, and located in the town of Champion in 1808. In 1816 he located on the farm on road 45, in this town. He had born to him 10 children--five sons and five daughters. Joseph, his son, married Rachel Van Antwerp, by whom he had eight children. Joseph is now deceased.
MR. AND MRS. SUEL GILBERT, substantial and highly respected citizens of Carthage, were among the earliest settlers. He was a carpenter by trade, and by industry and by industry and frugality accumulated a handsome property. Mr. Gilbert died from the effects of coal gas. The neighbors found him and his worthy wife in a state of asphyxia, from the effects of which he never rallied. Being childless, Mrs. Gilbert died January 2, 1831, leaving the greater portion of her property to the Presbyterian, Methodist and Baptist Churches of Carthage. To the first named $2,000, and the balance (from $6,000 to $9,000) to each an equal share. This was a veritable God-send to these churches, which had lost their houses of worship in the great conflagration of 1884. The memory of these Christian people is blessed to the members of their own church (the Presbyterian), as well as to all with whom they were acquainted.
J. T. ATWOOD was born in Morristown, St. Lawrence county, in 1832, whence he removed to the town of Champion in 1860, and in 1887 located in Carthage village. He married Elizabeth Starling, by whom he has one daughter, Clara L., who married George B. Haas. His second wife was Miss Demerius Nye, of Wilna.
GENERAL THOMAS W. OSBORN, son of Jonathan and Amelia Osborn, was born at the village of Scotch Plains, New Jersey, in 1833. In 1842 he removed with his parents to North Wilna, Jefferson county. He remained upon the farm, performing the ordinary labor of a farmer's son, until 1854. During that time he had no educational advantages excepting the winter terms of the district school. In the autumn of 1854 he commenced a course of study preparatory for college. He graduated from Madison University (now Colgate University) in 1860. After graduation he entered the law-office of Starbuck & Sawyer, at Watertown, being admitted to practice law in 1861. It was not until after the battle of First Bull Run that he determined to do what he could to sustain the government. He raised a company for light artillery service, afterwards known as Company D, First New York Light Artillery. Of this command he was commissioned captain. The battery served continuously with the Army of the Potomac and was engaged in more than 30 pitched battles, from the Peninsula to Gettysburg, proving itself one of the best artillery forces in the army, only equaled by the battery of Mink and Spratt, also raised in Jefferson, St. Lawrence and Lewis counties. After this general and entirely truthful statement it is not necessary to go into details, for Osborn's battery has a record that can be found in the history of the Army of the Potomac. The services of Captain Osborn were so meritorious that he was rapidly promoted from one grade to another, having been chief of artillery of the second division of the second corps, under General Berry, with the rank of major; in 1863 he was promoted to the command of the second brigade of the volunteer artillery of the Army of the Potomac, and in June, 1863, was made chief of artillery of the second corps, under General Howard in which capacity he went through with the battle of Chancellorsville. In 1864 he was transferred to the Army of the Cumblerland and was chief of artillery of the fourth corps of that army; and while thus employed was seriously wounded. While in command of the recruiting barracks at Louisville, Ky., he organized the 106th, 107th and 108th regiments of colored troops. Returning to the front as soon as convalescent, on the 28th of July, 1864, he was assigned, by General Sherman, as chief of artillery of the Army and Department of the Tennessee, commanded by General Howard. This assignment gave Major Osborn the largest artillery command held by any officer during the war, with the one exception of Major. General Barry, who was General Sherman's chief of artillery. November 1, 1865, upon the organization of Sherman's army for the Savannah campaign, Major Osborn was relieved from the command of the artillery of the department, and retained that of the moving army. December 21, 1864, in addition to his other duties, be was put in command and had charge of all the artillery, light and heavy, captured at Savannah; January 9, 1865, he received his previous command of the artillery only with the moving army and entered upon the Carolina campaign. This he retained until May 10, 1865, when he was relieved by the Secretary of War and assigned to other duty.

The principal campaigns in which he was engaged were the Peninsula, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Lookout Valley and Chattanooga, Atlanta, Savannah and the Carolinas. His first commission was that of captain, and at the close of the war he received that of brevet brigadier-general.

The Major's best work was probably, performed at the battle of Gettysburg, while in command of the artillery brigade of the 11th corps. We pass over the first two days fighting at Gettysburg, and state that, excepting a severe fight by Slocum, before and after service, to dislodge Ewell from some earth works, there was no considerable fighting on the third day until the artillery contest, preparatory to the grand charge of Pickett's division. In the forenoon, the officers of Mead's army with their field glasses could plainly see Lee's batteries going into position along the crest of Seminary Ridge. Those batteries, standing at regular intervals, covered a point of about two miles, and about 150 of Lee's guns were in position. This was believed to be the longest and finest line of field guns ever in position upon a battlefield, and engaged at the same time in battle. Major Osborn's five battalions occupied the crest of Cemetery Hill. The distance between the two lines of battle, from seven-eighths of a mile to a mile and a half, was just enough for effective artillery work. At precisely one o'clock Lee's signal gun was fired, the shot directed upon Cemetery Hill. In less than a minute after, the 150 guns opened, more than half of which were turned upon Cemetery Hill.

After this firing had been in progress about an hour, General Hunt came upon the hill, and while consulting with Generals Howard and Schurz and Major Osborn of the progress of the battle, the artillery fire and Lee's probable intentions, the Major suggested that the firing of Meade's should entirely cease and permit Lee to develop his plans. The three generals approved the plan and Hunt at once acted upon the suggestion.

The firing along the entire line had no sooner ceased than Lee advanced Pickett's division, supported by two other divisions, to the grand charge upon Hancock's line. The result of that charge is well known. As soon as Pickett's Column was in half-range, everyone of Meade's guns opened with grape and canister, with deadly and sickening effect. Pickett's column melted away like the mists of morning before the rising sun.

At the close of the war, Major Osborn was assigned, by the Secretary of War to another important duty, the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands for the State of Florida. In that capacity he served two years, and then resigned his commission in the army and became a citizen of Florida, with his residence at Tallahassee. Soon after his resignation he received from Chief Justice Chase the appointment of Register in Bankruptcy for Florida.

During the enforcement of the Reconstruction Laws, he took an active part in the politics of the State; was elected a member of the Constitutional Convention, and drafted the Constitution of the State. By the Legislature elected under the new Constitution, he was elected in May, 1868, to the United States Senate, as a Republican, for the term ending 1873. He entered the Senate at the age of 35.

In 1876 he served as United States commissioner at the Centennial Exposition, at Philadelphia. Otherwise than that he has held no public office since he retired from the Senate. In later years he has been engaged in business in Florida and New York, and in literary pursuits.

CHARLES W. FRASIER was born in 1845 in the province of Ontario, Canada. He came to the United States when seven years of age. He enlisted in Champion in 1864, in Co. H. 186th N. Y. Vol. Infantry, and served with his regiment until 1865, when they were mustered out. He was wounded at Petersburg in the terrible charge upon Fort Mahone. He was a brave and faithful soldier, always ready and willing to do his duty, and, since the war, has been untiring in his efforts to advance the interests of the G. A. R. Mr. Frasier comes of fighting stock, and is proud of the fact that some of his ancestors took part in every war in which this country has been engaged. G. A. R. Post Steele, of Carthage, N. Y., has no more active and zealous member than Mr. Frasier, and he is as patriotic and loyal today as he was in 1864. He is a well-known and respected resident of West Carthage. He is best known, perhaps, in connection with the Carthage newspapers, having been engaged with both the Republican and Tribune.
EDGAR B. STEELE, for whom the G. A. R. Post at Carthage is named, was born at Evans Mills, November 14, 1842. His parents were Elisha and Eunice (Barret) Steele, who were old residents of LeRay. Edgar. B. had the benefit of the common schools. At a very early age he enlisted in Co. I, of the 35th Regt., and served with that organization until wounded at Fredericksburgh, which necessitated the amputation of his left foot. He was discharged for the disability thus incurred, and returned to his home at Carthage, where he learned the trade of shoemaking. He was a courageous soldier, who proved his valor by his wounds. In 1864 he married Miss Jennie Carr, and they raised two children, Frederick C. and Miss Mabel D. Mr. Steele died March 6, 1878.
ASAHEL B. WESTCOTT was born at Pillar Point, N. Y., May 6, 1839. His father, Asahel Westcott, was drowned off Oswego, N. Y., May 3, 1839, and his mother, Cynthia Westcott, is still alive, and lives at Dexter, N. Y. Asahel B. worked on the farm of his grandfather until he was 16 years of age, and then went to Falley Seminary at Fulton, N. Y., where he graduated two years later.

When the Civil War broke out he was teaching school at Pillar Point. He responded to the first call for volunteers, and enlisted April 22, 1861, at Sackets Harbor. He was mustered into the service of the United States June 11, 1861, at Elmira, N. Y., in Co. K, 35th N. Y. Vols., as private, and participated in all the battles the 35th was engaged in--among them being the second battle of Bull Run, South Mountain, Antietam and Fredericksburg. He was commissioned second lieutenant February 17, 1863, and mustered out of service with the regiment June 5, 1863, at Elmira. He married Martha E. Westcott, of Sackets Harbor, December 31, 1864. In February, 1872, he moved to Carthage, and engaged in carpentering and building. He was trustee of the village for two years, and justice of the peace two years. He was a charter member of E. B. Steele Post, G, A. R., and was commander for one term, and also a prominent Knight of Labor. March 3,1890, he was appointed postmaster at Carthage, and held that office until his death, which occurred April 20, 1893. His children are: George H. , Mabel and Ed Win. His widow survives him.

BESTER S. SAFFORD, was born in Harrisburg, Lewis county, June 1, 1834. He was the son of Bester B. and Amy (Stockwell) Safford, of Lewis county, and came of a patriotic ancestry, his father and grandfather having served in the War of 1812, and his great grandfather and his three brothers in the Revolutionary War. Bester S. was reared a farmer. He was deputy sheriff in Lewis county for three years, and in 1865 married Anna S. Peebles, daughter of Charles E. and Lydia Peebles, and they had five children born to them. In 1861 he enlisted in Co. G. 3d N. Y. Cav. Soon after the arrival of his regiment in North Carolina, Safford was promoted to corporal, and later to lieutenant, and he greatly distinguished himself on the scout and in batt [page missing] ...bert, of Fort Ann, N. Y., by whom he had two children, William A. and Harriet. The last named died when two years of age. His second wife was Cynthia Dean. There were two children by this marriage--a daughter, also named Harriet, who died at the age of 29, and a son, Leonard G.
Allen Peck was one of the pioneers of Carthage. He was a veteran of the War of 1812. His judgment was clear and sound, his heart was sympathetic and tender-his life was stainless. He entered into his rest, April 14, 1853, in his 58th year.

Leonard G., the only surviving member of the family of Allen Peck, was born September 3, 1832. He obtained his education at the Carthage Academy, and at the age of 17 entered apprenticeship to Clark Dodge, for three years, where he acquired the trade of wagon-making. Soon after his father's death, he entered into the employ of his brother, William A. Peck, as a clerk, in which position he continued until about a year from the time of the death of that most estimable and beloved citizen, in November, 1863.

In January, 1867, he embarked in the carriage business in Carthage, on the corner of State and Mechanic streets, which he conducted somewhat extensively for about 10 years, since which time he has discontinued regular business.

He married Helen Frances Bellinger, of Carthage, July 7, 1858. There were born to them three daughters, who are all living to cheer his now lonely fireside. His beloved wife died January 29, 1893.

Mr. Peck has been a member of the Board of Education continuously for 27 years, and has ever, through a love for youth and literary acquirements, been deeply interested in, and closely identified with, all pertaining to educational matters, in connection with the Carthage Union Free School. It may be truly said that the present position of the school, in the front rank among public schools of the county, is due in a great measure to the devotion and untiring zeal of this worthy citizen. He is a man of decided literary tastes, as is shown in what he has written for this History. Mr. Peck has been a life-long resident of Carthage. J. A. H.

WILLIAM WALLACE SWEET, A TRUSTEE of the village of Carthage, was born June 9, 1856, in the town of Wilna, the son of Edwin and Pamelia (Kelsey) Sweet. She was the daughter of Enos Kelsey, of LeRay.

William Wallace, the subject of our sketch, was one of four children. He received his primary education in the common schools; completing it at the Oswego State Normal School. He came to Carthage in 1882, and was employed as salesman in the stores of Walter Horr and of C. E. Francis, remaining some 10 years.

He married Miss Nettie A. Francis, a daughter of Gilbert Francis, of Felts Mills, and they have six children: Ethel C., Gertrude M., Ernest E., Erma P., these last two are twins; Lora and Leah, who also are twins. Mr. Sweet is one of the assessors of the town of Wilna, and one of the trustees of the village of Carthage, secretary of the Carthage Loan and Building Association, and assistant chief of the Fire Department. His present position is salesman for Mr. C. E. Van Slyke. Mr. Sweet is an honorable and respected citizen, enjoying the confidence of his fellow-citizens, as is amply evidenced by the honorable positions to which he has been called.

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